Podcasts de historia

Making of the Reino Unido

Making of the Reino Unido


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

  • Catalina de Aragón
  • Anne Askew
  • Robert Aske
  • Anthony Babington
  • Thomas Bolena
  • Ana Bolena
  • Conde de Bothwell
  • Juan Calvino
  • William Camden
  • William Cecil
  • Robert Cecil
  • Ana de Cleves
  • Thomas Cranmer
  • Thomas Cromwell
  • Henry Darnley
  • Robert Devereux
  • Francis Drake
  • John Dudley
  • Robert Dudley
  • Eduardo VI
  • Isabel I
  • Isabel de York
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Lady Jane Grey
  • Richard Hakluyt
  • Christopher Hatton
  • John Hawkins
  • Enrique VII
  • Enrique VIII
  • Nicholas Hilliard
  • Hans Holbein
  • Catherine Howard
  • Charles Howard
  • Henry Howard
  • Thomas Howard
  • Henry Hudson
  • Robert Kett
  • John Knox
  • Henry Lee
  • Martin lutero
  • Thomas More
  • Catherine Parr
  • Felipe II
  • Walter Raleigh
  • Ricardo III
  • María, reina de Escocia
  • Edward Seymour
  • Jane Seymour
  • Thomas Seymour
  • William Shakespeare
  • Philip Sidney
  • Duque de Medina Sidonia
  • Richard Southwell
  • Edward Stafford
  • John Stubbs
  • Levina Teerline
  • María Tudor
  • William Tyndale
  • Francis Walsingham
  • Peter Wentworth
  • Thomas Wolsey
  • Thomas Wyatt
  • acto de Union
  • Agricultura y Cerramientos
  • Anglicanos y puritanos
  • Parcela de Babington
  • Batalla de Bosworth
  • Católicos y protestantes
  • Teatro isabelino
  • Isabel y el matrimonio
  • Enrique VIII y el Papa
  • Rebelión de Kett
  • Pobreza en la Inglaterra Tudor
  • reforma Protestante
  • Peregrinación de Gracia
  • Parcela Ridolfi
  • Armada espanola
  • Deportes y pasatiempos
  • Trama de Throckmorton
  • Tabaco en la Inglaterra Tudor
  • Artistas Tudor
  • Herejes Tudor
  • Monasterios Tudor
  • Parlamentos Tudor
  • Tudor Gales
  • Biblia de Tyndale
  • Ana yo
  • Carolina de Ansbach
  • Conde de Argyll
  • Jacob Astley
  • Thomas Aylesbury
  • John Barkstead
  • John Bastwick
  • Richard Baxter
  • María Beale
  • William Bradford
  • John Bradshaw
  • Anne Bradstreet
  • Simon Bradstreet
  • William Brewster
  • Duque de buckingham
  • Peter Bulkeley
  • John Bunyan
  • Gilbert Burnet
  • Henry Burton
  • John Byron
  • George Calvert
  • John Carew
  • John Carver
  • Robert Catesby
  • Carlos I
  • Carlos II
  • William Penn
  • Samuel Pepys
  • Algernon Percy
  • George Percy
  • Thomas Percy
  • Hugh Peters
  • Endymion Porter
  • John Poyer
  • Orgullo de Thomas
  • William Prynne
  • John Pym
  • William Pynchon
  • Thomas Rainsborough
  • Príncipe Rupert
  • John Russell
  • Edward Sackville
  • Conde de Shaftesbury
  • John Smith
  • William Strode
  • James Stuart
  • Charles Stuart
  • John Thurloe
  • Francis Tresham
  • Anthony Van Dyck
  • Henry Vane
  • Edmund Verney
  • George Villiers
  • Edward Walker
  • William Waller
  • Robert Walpole
  • William Walwyn
  • Thomas De La Warr
  • Conde de Warwick
  • Thomas Wentworth
  • Bulstrode Whitelock
  • John Wildman
  • Guillermo III
  • Henry Wilmot
  • Gerrard Winstanley
  • Christopher Wren
  • Edward Winslow
  • Robert Wintour
  • Thomas Wintour
  • John Withrop
  • Christopher Wright
  • John Wright
  • William Kent
  • John Lambert
  • William Laud
  • Rowland Laugharne
  • Peter Lely
  • William Lenthall
  • David Leslie
  • John Lilburne
  • Robert Lilburne
  • Edmund Ludlow
  • Henry Marten
  • Andrew Marvell
  • María II
  • Príncipe Mauricio
  • John Milton
  • George Monck
  • Duque de monmouth
  • Edward Montagu
  • Señor Monteagle
  • Conde de Montrose
  • Thomas Myddelton
  • Richard Neville
  • Conde de Newcastle
  • Titus Oates
  • Richard Overton
  • Conde de Clarendon
  • Samuel Cooper
  • John algodón
  • William Crompton
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Richard Cromwell
  • Duque de Cumberland
  • Conde de Denbigh
  • John Desborough
  • Everard Digby
  • George Digby
  • William Dobson
  • Thomas Dudley
  • John Endecott
  • John Eliot
  • Conde de Essex
  • John Evelyn
  • Ferdinando Fairfax
  • Thomas Fairfax
  • Vizconde de las Malvinas
  • Anne Fanshawe
  • Guy Fawkes
  • William Fiennes
  • Charles Fleetwood
  • Jorge I
  • Jorge II
  • Charles Gerard
  • John Gerard
  • George Goring
  • Nell Gwyn
  • John Hampden
  • Thomas Harrison
  • William Harvey
  • Arthur Haselrig
  • Enriqueta María
  • Francis Higginson
  • Denzil Holles
  • Thomas Hooker
  • Thomas Horton
  • John Hoskins
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • Lucy Hutchinson
  • Henry Ireton
  • James I
  • Jacobo II
  • John Jones
  • Anabautistas
  • Anglicanos
  • Bautistas
  • Caballeros
  • Carlos II y los católicos
  • Mancomunidad
  • Congregacionalistas
  • Culloden
  • Guerra civil
  • Guerra civil: tácticas
  • Guerra Civil: Armas
  • Excavadoras
  • Derecho divino
  • Edgehill
  • Quinto monárquicos
  • Cinco miembros
  • Revolución gloriosa
  • Gran Incendio de Londres
  • Conspiración de la Pólvora
  • Independientes
  • Rebelión jacobita
  • Niveladores
  • Marston Moor
  • Naseby
  • Newbury
  • Nuevo modelo de ejército
  • Presbiterianos
  • Purga del orgullo
  • Puritanos
  • Debates de Putney
  • Cuáqueros
  • Regicidas
  • Restauracion
  • católicos romanos
  • Cabezas redondas
  • Roundway Down
  • Parcela de la casa de centeno
  • Impuesto de envío
  • Actos de prueba
  • Tories
  • Gales en la Guerra Civil
  • Whigs

Reino Unido

Nuestros editores revisarán lo que ha enviado y determinarán si deben revisar el artículo.

Reino Unido, país insular ubicado frente a la costa noroeste de Europa continental. El Reino Unido comprende la totalidad de la isla de Gran Bretaña, que contiene Inglaterra, Gales y Escocia, así como la parte norte de la isla de Irlanda. El nombre de Gran Bretaña se usa a veces para referirse al Reino Unido en su conjunto. La capital es Londres, que se encuentra entre los principales centros comerciales, financieros y culturales del mundo. Otras ciudades importantes son Birmingham, Liverpool y Manchester en Inglaterra, Belfast y Londonderry en Irlanda del Norte, Edimburgo y Glasgow en Escocia y Swansea y Cardiff en Gales.

Los orígenes del Reino Unido se remontan a la época del rey anglosajón Athelstan, quien a principios del siglo X d.C. se aseguró la lealtad de los reinos celtas vecinos y se convirtió en "el primero en gobernar lo que anteriormente muchos reyes compartían entre ellos". en palabras de una crónica contemporánea. A través de la subsiguiente conquista durante los siglos siguientes, los reinos que se encontraban más lejos quedaron bajo el dominio inglés. Gales, un conjunto de reinos celtas que se encuentran en el suroeste de Gran Bretaña, se unió formalmente con Inglaterra por las Actas de Unión de 1536 y 1542. Escocia, gobernada desde Londres desde 1603, se unió formalmente con Inglaterra y Gales en 1707 para formar el Reino Unido. de Gran Bretaña. (El adjetivo "británico" entró en uso en este momento para referirse a todos los pueblos del reino.) Irlanda quedó bajo control inglés durante el siglo XVII y se unió formalmente con Gran Bretaña a través del Acta de Unión de 1800. La república de Irlanda ganó su independencia en 1922, pero seis de los nueve condados de Ulster siguieron formando parte del Reino Unido como Irlanda del Norte. Las relaciones entre estos estados constituyentes e Inglaterra han estado marcadas por la controversia y, en ocasiones, la rebelión abierta e incluso la guerra. Estas tensiones se relajaron un poco a finales del siglo XX, cuando se introdujeron las asambleas descentralizadas en Irlanda del Norte, Escocia y Gales. No obstante, incluso con el establecimiento de una asamblea de poder compartido después de los referendos tanto en Irlanda del Norte como en la República de Irlanda, las relaciones entre los unionistas de Irlanda del Norte (que favorecen la continuidad de la soberanía británica sobre Irlanda del Norte) y los nacionalistas (que favorecen la unificación con la República de Irlanda) permaneció tenso en el siglo XXI.

El Reino Unido ha realizado contribuciones significativas a la economía mundial, especialmente en tecnología e industria. Sin embargo, desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las exportaciones más destacadas del Reino Unido han sido las culturales, incluida la literatura, el teatro, el cine, la televisión y la música popular, que atraen a todas las partes del país. Quizás la mayor exportación de Gran Bretaña ha sido el idioma inglés, que ahora se habla en todos los rincones del mundo como uno de los principales medios internacionales de intercambio cultural y económico.

El Reino Unido mantiene vínculos con partes de su antiguo imperio a través de la Commonwealth. También se beneficia de los vínculos históricos y culturales con los Estados Unidos y es miembro de la Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN). Además, el Reino Unido se convirtió en miembro de la Unión Europea en 1973. Sin embargo, muchos británicos fueron a veces miembros de la UE reacios, aferrándose a los sentimientos del gran primer ministro de la época de guerra, Winston Churchill, quien comentó sonoramente: “No vemos nada más que bueno y esperanza en una comunidad europea más rica, más libre y más satisfecha. Pero tenemos nuestro propio sueño y nuestra propia tarea. Estamos con Europa, pero no somos de ella. Estamos vinculados, pero no compuestos. Estamos interesados ​​y asociados, pero no absorbidos ”. De hecho, en junio de 2016, en un referéndum sobre si el Reino Unido debería permanecer en la UE, el 52 por ciento de los votantes británicos optaron por irse. Después de muchas negociaciones, varias prórrogas de plazos, una prolongada discordia política interna y dos cambios de primer ministro, se alcanzó un acuerdo sobre el “Brexit” (salida británica de la UE) que satisfizo tanto a la UE como a la mayoría del Parlamento. Así, el 31 de enero de 2020, Reino Unido se convertiría en el primer país en retirarse de la UE.

El Reino Unido comprende cuatro partes geográficas e históricas: Inglaterra, Escocia, Gales e Irlanda del Norte. El Reino Unido contiene la mayor parte del área y la población de las Islas Británicas, término geográfico para el grupo de islas que incluye Gran Bretaña, Irlanda y muchas islas más pequeñas. Inglaterra, Gales y Escocia juntas constituyen Gran Bretaña, la mayor de las dos islas principales, mientras que Irlanda del Norte y la República de Irlanda constituyen la segunda isla más grande, Irlanda. Inglaterra, que ocupa la mayor parte del sur de Gran Bretaña, incluye las Islas Sorlingas en la costa suroeste y la Isla de Wight en la costa sur. Escocia, que ocupa el norte de Gran Bretaña, incluye las islas Orkney y Shetland frente a la costa norte y las Hébridas frente a la costa noroeste. Gales se encuentra al oeste de Inglaterra e incluye la isla de Anglesey al noroeste.

Aparte de la frontera terrestre con la República de Irlanda, el Reino Unido está rodeado por el mar. Al sur de Inglaterra y entre el Reino Unido y Francia se encuentra el Canal de la Mancha. El Mar del Norte se encuentra al este. Al oeste de Gales y el norte de Inglaterra y al sureste de Irlanda del Norte, el Mar de Irlanda separa Gran Bretaña de Irlanda, mientras que el suroeste de Inglaterra, la costa noroeste de Irlanda del Norte y el oeste de Escocia se enfrentan al Océano Atlántico. En su parte más ancha, el Reino Unido tiene 300 millas (500 km) de ancho. Desde el extremo norte de Escocia hasta la costa sur de Inglaterra, hay unas 600 millas (1000 km). Ninguna parte está a más de 120 km (75 millas) del mar. La capital, Londres, está situada sobre la marea del río Támesis en el sureste de Inglaterra.

El archipiélago formado por Gran Bretaña y las numerosas islas más pequeñas tiene una forma tan irregular como diversa en geología y paisaje. Esta diversidad se debe en gran parte a la naturaleza y disposición de las rocas subyacentes, que son extensiones hacia el oeste de las estructuras europeas, con las aguas poco profundas del Estrecho de Dover y el Mar del Norte ocultando antiguos enlaces terrestres. Irlanda del Norte contiene una extensión hacia el oeste de las estructuras rocosas de Escocia. Estas estructuras rocosas comunes son violadas por el estrecho Canal Norte.

A escala mundial, esta dotación natural cubre un área pequeña, que se aproxima a la del estado de Oregón en los EE. UU. O al país africano de Guinea, y su diversidad interna, acompañada por cambios rápidos de paisajes a menudo hermosos, puede transmitir a los visitantes de países más grandes un sorprendente sensación de compacidad y consolidación. Los pueblos que, a lo largo de los siglos, se han labrado una existencia en este extremo atlántico de Eurasia han dejado su propia huella en el medio ambiente, y el palimpsesto antiguo y distintivo de sus patrones de campo y asentamientos complementa la diversidad natural.


El ultimo reino: la verdadera historia detrás de la serie

El ultimo reino, basado en el Historias sajonas novelas de Bernard Cornwell, vuelve a contar la historia del rey Alfredo el Grande y su deseo de unir los muchos reinos separados en lo que se convertiría en Inglaterra. Aquí, recapitulamos la historia real detrás de la historia hasta ahora, y lo que se cubre en la cuarta temporada ...

Esta competición se ha cerrado

Publicado: 6 de mayo de 2020 a la 1:00 pm

Cuando es El ultimo reino set y de que se trata?

Es la historia de la lucha entre sajones y daneses en la Inglaterra del siglo IX, cuando Inglaterra no era una nación sino una serie de reinos independientes invadidos o devastados por los daneses. La era de Lindisfarne y los asaltantes del mar ya pasó; en este punto de la historia, el Los vikingos en Gran Bretaña son colonos, señores y reyes.

Esta historia se desarrolla desde la perspectiva de Uhtred de Bebbanburg, un hombre nacido sajón y criado en danés, lidiando con sus lealtades persistentemente divididas entre sus juramentos (de los cuales hace muchos), sus identidades culturales en conflicto y su búsqueda de venganza.

Lo que comienza como una sencilla historia de venganza --recuperar su hogar ancestral en Northumbria de manos de su tío usurpador y vengar el asesinato de su padre vikingo adoptivo-- se extiende rápidamente a una epopeya de vikingos contra anglosajones adyacente a la historia, cuando Uhtred se encuentra en el Reino de Wessex, donde Alfredo el Grande sueña con expulsar a los hombres del norte de todos los reinos de 'Inglaterra' y crear una sola nación, algo que no se lograría hasta el reinado de su nieto.

El espectáculo se basa en el Historias sajonas novelas de Bernard Cornwell (ahora renombrado como el El ultimo reino serie debido al éxito del programa), de los cuales hay actualmente 12 impresos, con la 13a entrega final: Señor de la guerra - Se publicará en octubre de 2020.

¿Quieres leer reseñas de la temporada 4 y saber aún más sobre los hechos reales de la historia que inspiraron el drama? Lea más de los expertos en nuestra página seleccionada en El ultimo reino

¿Cuál es la trama de El ultimo reino cuarta temporada?

Temporada cuatro de El ultimo reino se espera que cubra los libros siete y ocho de la saga de Bernard Cornwell, El Señor Pagano y El trono vacío. Alfredo el grande está muerto, al igual que su siempre intrigante sobrino Aethelwold El hijo de Alfred, Edward el Viejo, se sienta en el trono de Wessex, su hija Aethelflaed está casada con el gobernante de Mercia y los daneses, liderados por Haesten y Cnut (no Cnut el Grande; no nacerá hasta dentro de cien años), sentido la oportunidad . Uhtred, mientras tanto, se da cuenta de que ahora podría ser el momento de desafiar a su tío Aelfric por su derecho de nacimiento, el señorío de Bebbanburg en Northumbria.

Una vez que se complete la cuarta temporada, todavía quedan cuatro libros más (hasta ahora) en la serie de Cornwell para adaptar, si el El ultimo reino se renueva para temporadas futuras.

EL ÚLTIMO REINO RESEÑAS DE LA TEMPORADA 4:

Lo que ocurrió en El ultimo reino ¿Temporada uno? ¿Y cuál es la verdadera historia?

El ultimo reino comienza en 866, el año en que los vikingos tomaron el control de York por primera vez. Uhtred es hijo y heredero de Bebbanburg (Bamburgh) en Northumbria. Cuando llegan los vikingos, su padre, Lord Uhtred, cabalga para dar batalla y, como era de esperar, es asesinado. El niño Uhtred es capturado.

El tío de Uhtred, Aelfric, espera rescatar al niño y asesinarlo silenciosamente para que pueda reclamar el señorío de Bebbanburg sin impedimentos, pero ese plan se frustra cuando el jarl danés Ragnar the Fearless le gusta el muchacho y finalmente lo lleva de regreso a Dinamarca. junto con una chica sajona, Brida.

Avance rápido varios años: Uhtred es ahora un hombre joven, completamente inmerso en la cultura y religión nórdicas. Su aparente felicidad se derrumba cuando Ragnar el Intrépido es asesinado, quemado vivo en su salón por el capitán de barco Kjartan y su hijo Sven el Tuerto, en represalia por el hecho de que Ragnar se haya llevado el ojo de Sven muchos años antes. Kjartan difunde rumores de que Uhtred, nacido en Sajonia, es el sinvergüenza detrás del hecho, lo que obliga a Uhtred a huir a través del Mar del Norte a las tierras que dejó cuando era niño.

Al regresar a Northumbria, Uhtred conoce a Guthrum y Ubba, uno de los legendarios hijos del legendario héroe vikingo Ragnar Lothbrok, a quien ve asesinar al rey Edmund de East Angles. El verdadero Edmund "fue atado a un árbol, golpeado y luego asesinado con una andanada de flechas". escribe la historiadora eclesiástica Emma J. Wells, que es más o menos lo que sucede aquí, excepto que se desarrolla en una iglesia.

Guthrum y Ubba no creen en su inocencia, por lo que Uhtred huye a Winchester, capital de Wessex, el "último reino" titular para ser presa de los daneses. Aethelred I gobierna, pero a mitad de temporada ha sido herido de muerte y en su lecho de muerte pasa la corona a su hermano, Alfred - con vistas a Aethelwold, su propio hijo, retratado como un borracho que cree que la corona debería haber sido suya por defecto.

“[Alfred] nunca pudo haber esperado ser rey, ya que era el menor de cinco hermanos, pero todos murieron jóvenes”, escribe Michael Wood. "Tenía 21 años, era piadoso y valiente, pero su salud era precaria y padecía una enfermedad hereditaria paralizante, tal vez la enfermedad de Crohn".

El joven Ragnar, hijo de Ragnar el intrépido, regresa de Irlanda - una de las muchas costas además de Inglaterra a la que los vikingos navegaron - para confirmar por sí mismo que Uhtred no mató a su padre. Cuando se va para vengarse de Kjartan, Brida se marcha con él.

Uhtred resultó fundamental en la batalla de Cynwit en Devon en 878, una de las cinco "batallas perdidas" más importantes de la era vikinga, escribe Thomas Williams, quien la describe como "una de las grandes revoluciones militares de la Alta Edad Media", antes de lo cual mata a Ubba en combate singular. La parte de Uhtred en la batalla se pasa por alto (un tema común en El ultimo reino) y la victoria se atribuye a Odda el Viejo, ealdorman de Devon, como ocurre en la historia real.

Uhtred y Alfred chocan con frecuencia a lo largo del resto de la serie por la lealtad y la religión, pero donde Alfred se ve obligado a admitir la utilidad de Uhtred es cuando el aspirante a señor de Bebbanburg lo ayuda a escapar a los pantanos de Somerset, donde es famoso por quemar los pasteles, en después de la invasión danesa de Wessex en 878, y luego en la batalla de Edington en la que los sajones infligen una aplastante derrota a los hombres del norte.

Escuche al renombrado novelista histórico Bernard Cornwell hablar sobre sus libros que inspiraron El ultimo reino, y sobre su carrera como escritor en general:

Que pasa en El ultimo reino ¿la segunda temporada? ¿Y cuál es la verdadera historia?

Uhtred se dirige al norte, no a Bebbanburg, sino para rescatar a Guthred, un danés cristiano que profetizó que se convertiría en el rey de Cumberland. La misión es un éxito, pero una vez que el rey Guthred se convence de traicionar a Uhtred y lo vende como esclavo. Alfred envía al joven Ragnar (hijo de Ragnar el intrépido y hermano adoptivo de Uhtred, tomado como rehén por Wessex al final de la primera temporada) para rescatarlo. Reunidos, Ragnar y Uhtred sitian a Kjartan y Sven el Tuerto en Durham, vengando finalmente a Ragnar el Temerario.

Esta temporada también desarrolla el personaje de Aethelflaed, que todavía no es la 'Dama de los Mercianos', sino una mujer joven y, como hija de un rey, lista para casarse en alianza: “Como esposa, la historia de Æthelflæd es todo demasiado familiar en términos de matrimonios dinásticos reales ”, escribe la Dra. Janina Ramírez. Ella está casada, en la historia y en adelante El ultimo reino, a Aethelred de Mercia. “La suya era una unión totalmente política, diseñada para fortalecer los dos reinos contra las incursiones danesas y noruegas en el norte”, dice Ramírez.

En el programa, Mercian Aethelred se revela a sí mismo como un marido pobre, posesivo y abusivo. Lleva a Aethelflaed a la guerra contra los hermanos daneses Siegfried y Erik (ambos antagonistas ficticios) y su subordinado Haesten (que sí existía), donde es capturada y retenida para pedir rescate, lo que establece la batalla culminante de la temporada en Benfleet en 893 y el suicidio de Odda el Viejo. en lugar de una ejecución segura por traición.

Lo que ocurrió en El ultimo reino temporada tres? ¿Y cuál es la verdadera historia?

La tercera temporada comienza con la presentación de dos nuevos antagonistas, el guerrero Bloodhair y su vidente, Skade, que tiene una visión de Bloodhair matando a Alfred en la batalla. Pero Alfred realmente está muriendo, debido a la mala salud, Edward el Aetheling es un joven que aún no está listo para gobernar Aetholwold y está sembrando discordia al ver una ruta para convertirse finalmente en rey.

Las relaciones entre Uhtred y Alfred llegan a un punto crítico cuando Uhtred mata accidentalmente a un sacerdote después de la intromisión de Aethelwold en respuesta, Alfred intenta hacer que Uhtred haga un juramento de servir a Edward. Uhtred, dándose cuenta de que hacerle un juramento a Edward significaría una vida de servidumbre, se niega rotundamente y luego toma a Alfred como rehén para efectuar su escape.

La tercera temporada coloca a Aethelwold en el centro del escenario jugando a la política. También deja Wessex, deteniéndose primero en Mercia, donde siembra las semillas de la traición de Aethelflaed, y en el campamento de Bloodhair, donde argumenta que los daneses deberían formar un solo "gran ejército" para aplastar a Wessex.

"Los cronistas de West Saxon fueron mordaces sobre la alianza de Æthelwold con los vikingos, pero como táctica de guerra no era inusual", escribe el profesor Ryan Lavelle, historiador medieval temprano, quien también es El ultimo reinoConsultor histórico. "Hay buenas razones para sospechar que Alfred también se alió con mercenarios vikingos cuando las circunstancias lo requirieron".

Uhtred se dirige hacia el norte, a Durham y a su hermano Ragnar el Joven, donde conspira brevemente con Bloodhair, Haesten y el primo de Ragnar, Cnut, para formar un gran ejército para invadir los reinos sajones, pero los abandona para rescatar a Aethelflaed, que ahora se esconde en un convento. , porque Aethelred está conspirando para que la maten.

Más tarde, Aethelwold asesina a Ragnar en su cama, impidiéndole alcanzar su espada y negándole la entrada al Valhalla. Se revela que Haesten es un espía de Alfred y alerta al rey de la amenaza danesa.

Alfred finalmente sucumbe a su enfermedad, pero no antes de reconciliarse con Uhtred y ver a Edward casado. Uhtred afirma públicamente su apoyo a Edward como presunto rey, y cabalgan para encontrarse con Aethelwold y los daneses cerca de Bedford, derrotándolos con la ayuda de Mercia y Kent. En el clímax de la batalla, Uhtred alcanza a Aethelwold (habiendo aprendido que él fue el responsable de la muerte del joven Ragnar) y lo apuñala en el corazón.

Este acto final de las maquinaciones de Aethelwold se desarrolla de manera marcadamente diferente a los eventos reales. Aunque en el programa se trata inmediatamente después de la muerte de Alfred en 899, la batalla real tuvo lugar en un lugar no identificado sospechoso de ser Holme en East Anglia en 902, después de una insurrección de tres años en la que Aethelwold tuvo un éxito moderado. Incluso las circunstancias de la batalla se invierten, con los daneses emboscando al ejército de Edward: ganaron la batalla, pero Aethelwold murió en la lucha, lo que la convierte en algo pírrica.

“La insurrección de Æthelwold es poco conocida hoy en día, una mera nota a pie de página en la historia anglosajona”, dice Lavelle. "También sugiere que, si Æthelwold hubiera disfrutado de un poco más de fortuna en las consecuencias de la muerte de Alfred, y si una oscura batalla en 902 hubiera tenido un resultado alternativo, el futuro de Inglaterra podría haber sido muy diferente".

Lo que ocurrió en El ultimo reino cuarta temporada? ¿Y cuál es la verdadera historia?

Edward gobierna en Wessex, golpeado por todos lados por asesores y tratando de salir de la sombra de Alfred el Grande (o quizás estar a la altura), pero eso no es una preocupación persistente para Uhtred. Al final del episodio uno, navega hacia el norte para reclamar su hogar ancestral de Bebbanburg (Bamburgh) de manos de Aelfric, el vil tío que trató de asesinarlo cuando era niño y luego conspiró para venderlo como esclavo como adulto.

Bebbanburg es convenientemente vulnerable, no por los daneses, sino por las belicosas atenciones de los escoceses, y Aelfric está luchando por contenerlos.

La historia es mixta aquí, dice el historiador medieval temprano Ryan Lavelle en nuestra reseña del episodio uno: "El norte de Northumbria estaba en una zona fronteriza disputada por un reino escocés emergente y los asaltos fueron probablemente lo suficientemente frecuentes, aunque los eventos retratados aquí son tanto un guiño a el señor histórico [Uhtred] de Bamburgh ". Ese Uhtred, a quien Lavelle explica que habría estado en los límites de su poder al igual que Aelfric está aquí, luchó contra los escoceses en el siglo XI, no en el X.

Escuche en el podcast: Dan Jackson traza la historia y la cultura distintivas del noreste de Inglaterra, desde la antigüedad hasta la actualidad.

De nuevo en El ultimo reinoUhtred cree que un pequeño ejército podría tomar la fortaleza. Por desgracia, Edward se niega a darle dicho ejército, por lo que está en el Plan B: secuestra a su hijo separado (también llamado Uhtred) de su iglesia, haz que se cuele en Bebbanburg con algunos otros sacerdotes, luego abre la puerta del mar al amparo de la oscuridad. para que Uhtred y su alegre banda puedan colarse y asesinar a Aelfric.

Uhtred entra, no sin algún contratiempo, solo para encontrar su plan frustrado por el regreso del propio hijo separado de Aelfric, Whitgar, quien altera terminalmente el equilibrio de poder en el norte al ejecutar a Aelfric y reclamar Bebbanburg como suyo. Superados, Uhtred y sus compañeros escapan, pero no sin la muerte del padre Beocca, su íntimo confidente y eficaz figura paterna.

En Mercia, el capitán de la guardia de Aethelred (Eardwulf) trae la noticia de que los daneses en East Anglia han dejado su campamento para ir a Irlanda. Aethelred, irritado por estar nominalmente subordinado a Wessex, ve la oportunidad de superar a Edward y rápidamente marcha con todo su ejército a East Anglia para reclamarlo como suyo. Pero todo es humo y espejos: los daneses, liderados por Cnut y Brida, dejaron East Anglia, pero no se hicieron a la mar. Navegaron río arriba, desembarcaron cerca de la sede de Aethelred en Aylesbury y la tomaron como propia.

La noticia no llega a Aethelred Eardwulf no se lo dice, temiendo la ira de su amo. Es otra mancha negra en una larga lista de defectos de carácter en esta representación del gobernante merciano, que a su vez es caprichoso, adúltero y cruel. ("[Aethelred] se interpreta como un personaje bastante despreciable, un retrato para el que no hay evidencia histórica", señala Lavelle).

En Winchester, Edward se niega a derramar sangre de Wessex para salvar el suelo de Mercia, ganándose la aprobación de su vasallo más poderoso (y suegro) Aethelhelm, y la ira de su hermana Aethelflead y su madre Aelswith. Aunque muerto hace mucho tiempo en la historia real, los Aelswith de El ultimo reino tiene que lidiar con su papel cada vez menor en la corte, lo que lleva a una decisión trascendental de recuperar al hijo de Edward de su primer matrimonio (que tuvo lugar y fue anulado fuera de la pantalla en la tercera temporada) de un convento. Se revela que el niño es Aethelstan, el futuro primer rey de los ingleses.

Las intrigas y vacilaciones culminan con Aethelflead tomando una acción decisiva: se escapa de Winchester, levanta a los fyrds de Mercia independientemente de su marido ausente y (gracias a Uhtred) atrae a los daneses a la batalla en Tettenhall, un verdadero enfrentamiento que tuvo lugar en 910, en que tres reyes vikingos fueron asesinados. Fue esta batalla, escribe la historiadora Dra. Janina Ramírez, la que "aseguró la imagen [de Aethelflaed] como reina guerrera victoriosa".

En el programa, Aethelflaed no está sola: tiene el apoyo de los galeses (haciendo su primera aparición en El ultimo reino), y al final de la batalla, Aethelred y Edward llegan para cambiar el rumbo. Cnut es asesinado y Brida es devuelta a Gales como esclava.

"La aparición de guerreros galeses en el campo de batalla es una imaginación histórica en esta ocasión en particular, pero el servicio militar galés para los ejércitos anglosajones no era desconocido en este momento", dice Lavelle en nuestra revisión del episodio cuatro. Estos son los hombres King Hywel Dda ("el bueno"), que gobernó Deheubarth ("la parte sur"), y tienen un papel importante: "un recordatorio de que la historia de la Gran Bretaña medieval temprana era más que inglesa". El verdadero ejército sajón en Tettenhall era una alianza de Aethelflaed y Edward, aunque la presencia de Aethelred es incierta.

El ultimo reino ve a Aethelred sufrir una herida fatal en la cabeza en Tettenhall. A pesar de que solo se espera que viva unos días (una ficción: Aethelred murió en el 911), Eardwulf lo mata en su lecho de enfermo. ¿Por qué? Para proteger una elevación repentina. Con la pregunta de quién debería tener éxito como gobernante de Mercia, Eardwulf se convierte en el firme favorito, un trato que se legitimará mediante el matrimonio con Aethelred y la hija de Aethelflaed, la niña Aelfwynn.

Aunque Aethelflaed finalmente toma el trono como lo hizo en la historia (aunque es gracias a Uhtred en esta narración), esto establece un arco en el que Uhtred anima a Aelfwynn a través del campo en busca de seguridad, poniéndola en contacto con 'La Enfermedad'. lo cual, en una era sin lavarse las manos, es tan pernicioso como puedes imaginar. Aylesbury incluso se pone en cuarentena.

¿Qué es esta enfermedad? “No se conoce ninguna epidemia histórica en la Gran Bretaña medieval temprana desde 910/911 o incluso las primeras décadas del siglo X, pero lo que está sucediendo no es mucho después de un período de enfermedad registrado en 896, en el que varios de los grandes y buenos de Wessex pereció ”, dice Lavelle en nuestra reseña del episodio seis. A pesar de que sus imágenes están fuertemente vinculadas con la Edad Media, no hay nada, ni en el programa ni en la historia real, que sugiera que esta Enfermedad sea la Peste Negra.

En medio de la crisis de sucesión, surge una nueva amenaza danesa: Sigtryggr, un verdadero vikingo que se considera descendiente de Ivar el Deshuesado. Aterriza en Gales, derrota al rey Hywel, rescata a Brida, lidera un grupo de guerreros hacia Wessex y se apodera de Winchester de manera ahistórica; lo deja indefenso mientras Edward interfiere en la sucesión de Mercia.

Al final del clímax de un mes de asedio de la temporada, Uhtred se convierte en negociador, lo que ayuda a forjar un acuerdo en el que Sigtryggr renuncia a Winchester a favor de York. Esta es de nuevo la historia correcta en el momento equivocado: Sigtryggr, señala Lavelle en nuestra reseña del episodio diez, fue el gobernante histórico de los angloescandinavos de York, pero no hasta 920. Uhtred cabalga hacia la puesta del sol (por ahora) con Aethelstan como su Ward: el niño no puede quedarse en Winchester, sobre todo porque Aethelhelm, abuelo del heredero actual de Edward, acaba de envenenar a Aelswith para asegurarse de que su familia conserve el poder ...

Como sera El ultimo reino ¿fin?

Si el espectáculo continúa y sigue el hilo de las novelas de Bernard Cornwell, es posible que ya sepamos la respuesta. Cornwell dijo HistoriaExtra en 2018 ese "El ultimo reino La serie va a terminar con un hecho histórico real: la batalla de Brunanburh en 937. La batalla marcó el comienzo de Inglaterra, por lo que obviamente tenía que incluirse en la serie ".

El ultimo reino La cuarta temporada se transmite en Netflix a partir del domingo 26 de abril.

Kev Lochun es Historia de la BBC reveladaEditor de producción


Making of the Reino Unido - Historia

El Reino Unido está situado al noroeste del continente europeo entre el Océano Atlántico y el Mar del Norte. Tiene una superficie total de tierra de 244.100 kilómetros cuadrados, de los cuales casi el 99% es tierra y el resto agua interior. De norte a sur tiene unos 1.000 kilómetros de longitud.

El Reino Unido forma parte de Europa y es miembro de la Unión Europea (UE).

¿Cuál es el nombre oficial del Reino Unido?

El nombre oficial del Reino Unido es & quotReino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte& quot.

¿Qué países componen el Reino Unido?

El nombre se refiere a la unión de lo que alguna vez fueron cuatro naciones separadas: Inglaterra, Escocia, Gales e Irlanda (aunque la mayor parte de Irlanda ahora es independiente. Solo Irlanda del Norte es ahora parte del Reino Unido).

El Reino Unido está formado por:

  • Inglaterra - La capital es Londres. - La capital es Edimburgo. - La capital es Cardiff.
  • Irlanda del Norte: la capital es Belfast.

Inglaterra, Escocia y Gales juntos forman Gran Bretaña.

Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte forman juntos el & quotReino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte& quot (Reino Unido)

¿Cuál es la ciudad capital del Reino Unido?

¿Por qué toda Irlanda no está en el Reino Unido?

Antes de 1922, el Reino Unido incluía a Irlanda en la definición, pero cuando el Estado Libre de Irlanda dejó de ser parte de la Unión, el título cambió para incluir "Irlanda del Norte".

¿Cuándo se formó (hizo) el Reino Unido?

El Reino Unido (Reino Unido) se formó el 1 de enero de 1801 y constituye la mayor parte de las Islas Británicas.

¿Cómo se llama la gente en el Reino Unido?

Las personas en el Reino Unido se llaman británicos, aunque tienen diferentes nacionalidades.

La Union Flag, conocida popularmente como Union Jack, simboliza la unión de los países del Reino Unido. Está compuesto por las banderas individuales de tres países del Reino. Lee mas

The Story of the Making of the United Kingdom

The present Union Flag (Union Jack) represented the political union of three kingdoms

The story of how the UK was formed can be told through the making of the Union Flag, the flag of the United Kingdom.

Other pages about the UK

The British Isles

Questions about Great Britain

Questions about England

& copiar Copyright - por favor lee
Todos los materiales de estas páginas son gratuitos para tareas y uso en el aula únicamente. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the Mandy Barrow.
www.mandybarrow.com

Mandy is the creator of the Woodlands Resources section of the Woodlands Junior website.
The two websites projectbritain.com and primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk are the new homes for the Woodlands Resources.

Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant.
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.


Scotland: Rogue nation

The most important consideration in the making of the United Kingdom in 1707 was the standpoint of England.

Under William of Orange, England had been consolidated as a global power by the massive build up of the army and the navy to fight the French.

England’s war effort was funded through a national debt, supplied increasingly by taxes on trade rather than land.

The largest component of customs dues was levied on the colonial trade. But this trade faced significant disruption from Scottish commercial networks which circumvented the Navigation Acts contrived to protect English domestic and overseas trade.

England had insufficient manpower to fight wars, sustain manufacturing and expand its empire - the Scots were a ready reservoir.

English feelings that Scotland was acting as a rogue nation contributed greatly to William’s willingness to sabotage the Darien Venture through which Scotland attempted to establish an entrepôt for the East and West Indies on the Panama Isthmus in the late 1690s.

English desires to control the Scots became more acute after the accession of Queen Anne, particularly as the Scots seemed reluctant to accept an eventual Hanoverian succession.

Financial issues became critical as England embarked upon the War of the Spanish Succession. Because the Jacobites were strongly backed by Louis XIV of France, this engagement could well have turned into a war for the British succession.

Renewal of war further exposed a demographic crisis in England and brought about a major shift in government policy in favour of union.

England had insufficient manpower to fight wars, sustain manufacturing and expand its empire. The Scots were a ready reservoir.

Queen Anne played a proactive role in the making of the United Kingdom, not least because she was outraged by the endeavours of the Scottish estates to impose limitations on the prerogative powers of her eventual successor.

If the price of union and the Hanoverian succession was to be the termination of the Scottish estates, so be it. In turn, leading members of the estates, intent on preserving the royal prerogative, securing the Presbyterian Kirk and attaining greater career opportunities through empire promoted Union.


Communication and Banking in the Industrial Revolution

The latter part of the Industrial Revolution also saw key advances in communication methods, as people increasingly saw the need to communicate efficiently over long distances. In 1837, British inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the first commercial telegraphy system, even as Samuel Morse and other inventors worked on their own versions in the United States. Cooke and Wheatstone’s system would be used for railroad signalling, as the speed of the new trains had created a need for more sophisticated means of communication.

Banks and industrial financiers rose to new prominent during the period, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s. 

In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790), who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published La riqueza de las naciones. In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference.


&aposRumours&apos became one of the band&aposs most successful albums

Aunque Rumours would go on to become a massive international hit and musical anchor to the latter part of the &apos70s, Buckingham remembers having mixed feelings about creating such a bittersweet ode to love lost and found. “When Rumors went crazy, I just couldn’t bring myself to feel strongly about the album,” he said to Piedra rodante in 1984. 𠇊t some point, all the stuff surrounding it started to become the main focus. There was a gap between what I felt was important internally – what I had accomplished musically – and the popular acclaim.”

The core five members of Fleetwood Mac would go on to produce further studio albums and tour and would disband and then reunite over the decades. Considered by many fans and critics as the band’s best release, Rumours was selected in 2018 for preservation in the National Recording Registry. Piedra rodante placed it at number 26 on their list of 500 Greatest Albums of All Time,ꃞscribing the band as turning “private turmoil into gleaming, melodic public art.”

"Rumours remains so powerful because it’s so ruthlessly clear-eyed about the crisis, instead of smoothing it over," Christine explained to Piedra rodante. "After all the tantrums and breakdowns and crying fits, the album ends with Stevie Nicks asking you point blank: &aposIs it over now? Do you know how to pick up the pieces and go home?&apos If the answers are &aposno&apos and &aposno,&apos you flip the record and play it again."


The Constitution of the United Kingdom

Many nations around the world govern through a written constitution, which lays out the fundamental laws of the land and rights of the people in one single legal document. So why doesn’t the UK have a written constitution? The answer can be found in our history.

Emerging nations around the world have had to start from scratch and produce a written constitution setting out their laws and citizens’ rights. Some more established countries have had to adopt a written constitution due to revolt or war. However Britain escaped the revolutionary zeal of the late 18th and 19th centuries, and so the UK constitution, often referred to as the British constitution, has evolved over centuries.

Democracy in Britain is based on Acts of Parliament, historical documents, court judgments, legal precedence and convention. The earliest date in the history of our constitution is 1215 when the barons forced King John to accept the Magna Carta, the ‘Great Charter of the Liberties of England’, which limited the power of the king, making him subject to the law of the land. Two of its key principles, the right to a fair trial by one’s peers and protection from unlawful imprisonment, form the basis of common law in Britain. Magna Carta would also be a major influence on the US constitution.

The Provisions of Oxford in 1258 set out the basis for the governance of England. 24 members would make up a Council governed by the monarch but supervised by a parliament. The first parliament, made up of knights, lords and common men drawn from the towns and cities, was presided over by Simon de Montfort, widely regarded as the founder of the House of Commons.

The Petition of Rights of 1628 set out some further rights and liberties of the people, including freedom from arbitrary arrest and punishment.

Another landmark piece of legislation was the Bill of Rights of 1689. This followed the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688, in which William III and Queen Mary replaced King James II. This bill declared that the monarch could not rule without consent of Parliament. As part of the bill, Parliament would meet regularly there would be free elections and freedom of speech in the chamber. It outlined specific liberties for the people, including the freedom to bear arms for self-defence, freedom from taxes imposed by the monarch without the consent of Parliament and the freedom from cruel and unusual punishment.

The Act of Settlement of 1701 controlled who should succeed to the throne and established the vital principle of judicial independence. The number of men entitled to vote was greatly increased by the 1832 Great Reform Act, and the Representation of the People’s Act of 1928 gave all men and women over the age of 21 the right to vote.

These and other written laws form just part of the constitution of the United Kingdom. Political customs or conventions are the unwritten rules that are vital to the workings of government. The office of Prime Minister is one of these conventions: legally the Monarch appoints the Prime Minister, who by convention is the leader of the largest party (or coalition of parties) after a General Election and commands the confidence of the House of Commons.

The Houses of Parliament

Parliament is made up of three entities: the Monarchy, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. To become law, bills have to be passed by both Houses and then given Royal Assent. By convention and in practice today, the Queen automatically gives her consent, although in theory she has the absolute and legal power to refuse.

By convention, all ministers in government must have a seat in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords. The Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer must have a seat in the House of Commons. This convention makes the elected government responsible and accountable to Parliament. This is known as the Westminster system of parliamentary government.

Entry into the European Economic Community in 1973 and membership of the European Union brought Britain under the jurisdiction of the European courts in many areas. Some people today see this as an undermining of parliamentary sovereignty, commonly regarded as the defining principle of the British constitution, and cite this as one of the arguments for Brexit (Britain leaving the European Union).

What would be the advantages of a written constitution? Those of us who have followed the Brexit debates in the House of Commons on television have done so in disbelief and confusion. Many today believe that parliament is at best in crisis and at worst ‘not fit for purpose’, and that a written constitution might clarify the position. Others claim that a system that has evolved over centuries is the best for Britain and a written constitution covering all our laws, liberties and conventions would be incredibly difficult to produce.

Whatever your point of view, the British system of government at Westminster (‘The Mother of Parliaments’) has formed the basis of parliamentary democracy of many countries around the world.


IV. Elections

Parliamentary elections were first introduced in medieval England as a solution from the Crown, who was required to obtain consent from Parliament to directly tax his subjects.[39] These elections evolved over time to have a detailed set of rules and procedures that continue to be refined today.

National elections are known as General Parliamentary Elections.[40] The Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011 established five-year fixed-term Parliaments, with the election occurring on the first Thursday of May, five years after the last election was held.[41] The political party that wins the most seats during this election goes on to form the government.
A principle of the British system of government is that the government of the day must have the confidence of the House of Commons. As noted above, the government is formed by the party that wins the majority of seats during the general election. A &ldquohung Parliament&rdquo results when no party wins a majority during the election. A report from the House of Commons states that &ldquothere are four likely outcomes. These [are] . . . (a) a minority government (b) a coalition (c) a failure to produce a government at all or (d) two or more of these things during the lifetime of a parliament.&rdquo[42] A hung Parliament occurred during the 2010 election, and the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats went on to form a coalition government.[43]

Prior to the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011, the maximum duration of a Parliament was five years, at which point Parliament automatically expired.[44] This rarely happened, however, and elections would generally occur after Parliament was dissolved, either through Royal Proclamation[45] or upon the advice of the Prime Minister.[46] The effect of the Proclamation was to vacate all the seats in the House of Commons and require a general election for the Commons. Because there was no set timetable for when an election should be held, other than it should occur within the five-year maximum term of Parliament, the Prime Minister had a political and tactical advantage of deciding the date of the general election, although generally the election was announced in the spring in which the Parliament was due to expire.

The last general election was held on May 7, 2015, and the Conservative party won 330 seats, accounting for 36.9% of votes. This secured a majority in the House for the Conservatives by twelve seats, the first time this party has secured a majority government since 1992. The next election will occur in accordance with the requirements established by the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011, and will take place the first Thursday in May 2020.[47]

A. Electoral System

In the UK, the electoral system used is that of a simple majority (plurality) for each constituency, more commonly known as the &ldquofirst past the post&rdquo system. The candidate who wins the largest number of votes from his or her constituency is to Parliament. The political party that wins the most votes goes on to form the government. A referendum was held in 2011 in which voters were asked if they wished to change the electoral system from the first past the post system to an alternative voting system. Voter turnout was higher than expected at 41%, with an overwhelming majority of 67.9% of voters rejecting a change in the electoral system.[48]

Eligibility to vote in general elections in the UK is subject to a number of criteria. Primarily, the individual wishing to vote must be registered in the register of parliamentary electors for his or her relevant constituency.[49] To be able to register his or her name in the register of parliamentary electors, the individual must be a British subject, which includes Commonwealth citizens,[50] or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland residing in Britain,[51] and be eighteen years or older. A British citizen residing overseas can vote for up to fifteen years after he or she leaves the country.[52]

Individuals who are disqualified from voting are Members of the House of Lords, legal or illegal immigrants, individuals of unsound mind, individuals guilty of corrupt or illegal practices in elections, and prisoners detained while serving their sentence. This latter restriction is currently under review as a result of a successful challenge before the European Court of Justice, although the current government has stated it has no plans to provide prisoners with a vote.[53]

B. Electoral Districts

Electoral Districts in the UK are known as parliamentary constituencies, with each constituency electing one Member of Parliament. There are currently 650 constituencies in the UK, with the average population represented by a Member of Parliament being 68,000.[54] The breakdown of Members of Parliament representing the countries of the UK is as follows: 533 in England, 59 in Scotland, 40 in Wales, and 18 in Northern Ireland.[55] The distribution of these seats is under continuous review by four nondepartmental government bodies, known as the Boundary Commissions. The Boundary Commissions recommend changes to the boundaries of the constituencies they are responsible for reviewing to ensure that each Member of Parliament represents a proportionate number of constituents who are eligible to vote.[56]

C. Registering to Vote

Provisions for the registration of voters in the UK are made through regulations under the Representation of the People Act 1983.[57] In the UK, local councils maintain voter registration lists (commonly known as the &ldquoelectoral roll&rdquo or &ldquoelectoral register&rdquo). The information held on the electoral roll is used for general elections, European Parliament elections, local government elections and, depending upon the persons&rsquo place of residence, elections to the National Assembly for Wales or the Scottish Parliament.[58]

Voter registration is not automatic and requires positive action (registration) on behalf of the individual wishing to vote. The electoral roll is compiled from three main sources:

  • An annual canvass conducted by the Local Council between August and November. Voter registration forms are delivered to homes in the Local Councils area. Households are required by law to complete and return the form listing all their residents who are eligible to vote on October 15 of that year.[59] If the information on the form received by the household is accurate, registration can be renewed by phone or the Internet.
  • Rolling registration by individual voters, who can register at any time by completing a registration form and sending it to the local electoral registration office.
  • Online registration by individual voters, who can register at any time by completing and submitting an online registration form.[60]

The penalty for failing to complete the voter registration form or for providing false information is a fine of up to £1,000 (approximately US$1,500).[61] Additionally, failure to register results in the individual not being able to vote in any election, and also has a negative impact on his or her ability to obtain credit, as credit reporting agencies use the electoral roll to verify names and addresses of credit applicants.[62]

The electoral register can be updated on a rolling basis with additions, deletions, or amendments. Individuals who move out of the voting district can submit a new voter registration form to be listed on the electoral register in their new district. Applicants must provide their old address so that the Electoral Registration Officer of the new district can notify the old district of the move.[63]

D. Voter Turnout

There were 45,325,100 UK parliamentary voters in 2014[64] 66.1% of the electorate voted during the general election in 2015, the highest turnout in eighteen years.[65]

E. Replacing Members of Parliament

Once elected, Members of Parliament cannot directly resign their seat.[66] The only way that a seat can be vacated is through death, disqualification, dissolution, expulsion, or elevation to the Peerage. When a parliamentary seat becomes vacant, a writ for a by-election is issued.[67] To prevent long-standing vacancies of seats, these writs are normally issued within three months of the vacancy.[68] If the vacancy occurs during a parliamentary recess, the Speaker of the House is permitted to issue a writ for election during this time.[69]

There appears to be no legislation or procedure to replace a large number of MPs. It is likely that the normal procedure for appointing MPs through by-elections would be followed in these circumstances. For example, in 1985, fifteen members of the Unionist Party vacated their seats in protest over the Anglo-Irish Agreement. As technically Members of Parliament are not permitted to reign from their seats, a legal loophole was used by these members, whereby they were appointed to an office for profit under the Crown, which disqualified them from sitting an am MP. By-elections were subsequently held to fill the vacancies.

During World War II, many seats were left vacant when MPs were involved in government services or became active members of the armed forces. The government formed a coalition in 1940 and agreed upon an electoral truce, during which the parties agreed not to contest by-elections. Instead, the local constituency association of the party that had won the seat in the last election nominated a candidate.[70] However, despite this agreement, some elections were still contested when parties considered that the candidate was too radical.


Contenido

The United Kingdom is a Constitutional Monarchy in which the reigning monarch (that is, the king or queen who is the head of state at any given time) does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by the government and Parliament. This constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215.

Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected Member of Parliament (MP) and thus directly answerable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the chancellor of the exchequer. It would probably now be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the House of Lords, with members of Parliament unable to question the Chancellor directly, especially now that the Lords have very limited powers on money bills. The last chancellor of the exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim chancellor of the exchequer for one month in 1834. [6]

The British monarch, currently Elizabeth II, is the head of state and the sovereign, but not the head of government. The monarch takes little direct part in governing the country and remains neutral in political affairs. However, the authority of the state that is vested in the sovereign, known as the Crown, remains as the source of executive power exercised by the government.

In addition to explicit statutory authority, the Crown also possesses a body of powers in certain matters collectively known as the royal prerogative. These powers range from the authority to issue or withdraw passports to declarations of war. By long-standing convention, most of these powers are delegated from the sovereign to various ministers or other officers of the Crown, who may use them without having to obtain the consent of Parliament.

The prime minister also has weekly meetings with the monarch, who "has a right and a duty to express her views on Government matters. These meetings, as with all communications between The Queen and her Government, remain strictly confidential. Having expressed her views, The Queen abides by the advice of her ministers." [7]

Royal prerogative powers include, but are not limited to, the following:

Domestic powers Edit

  • The power to appoint (and in theory, dismiss) a prime minister. This power is exercised by the monarch personally. By convention they appoint (and are expected to appoint) the individual most likely to be capable of commanding the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons.
  • The power to appoint and dismiss other ministers. This power is exercised by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister.
  • The power to assent to and enact laws by giving royal assent to bills passed Parliament, which is required in order for a law to become effective (an act). This is exercised by the monarch, who also theoretically has the power to refuse assent, although no monarch has refused assent to a bill passed by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708.
  • The power to give and to issue commissions to commissioned officers in the Armed Forces.
  • The power to command the Armed Forces. This power is exercised by the Defence Council in the Queen's name.
  • The power to appoint members to the Privy Council.
  • The power to issue, to suspend, cancel, recall, impound, withdraw or revoke British passports and the general power to provide or deny British passport facilities to British citizens and British nationals. This is exercised in the United Kingdom (but not necessarily in the Isle of Man, Channel Islands or British Overseas Territories) by the Home Secretary.
  • The power to pardon any conviction (the royal prerogative of mercy).
  • The power to grant, cancel and annul any honours.
  • The power to create corporations (including the status of being a city, with its own corporation) by royal charter, and to amend, replace and revoke existing charters.

Foreign powers Edit

  • The power to make and ratify treaties.
  • The power to declare war and conclude peace with other nations.
  • The power to deploy the Armed Forces overseas.
  • The power to recognise states.
  • The power to credit and receive diplomats.

Even though the United Kingdom has no single constitutional document, the government published the above list in October 2003 to increase transparency, as some of the powers exercised in the name of the monarch are part of the royal prerogative. [8] However, the complete extent of the royal prerogative powers has never been fully set out, as many of them originated in ancient custom and the period of absolute monarchy, or were modified by later constitutional practice.

As of 2019, there are around 120 government ministers [9] supported by 560,000 [10] civil servants and other staff working in the 25 ministerial departments [11] and their executive agencies. There are also an additional 20 non-ministerial departments with a range of further responsibilities.

In theory a government minister does not have to be a member of either House of Parliament. In practice, however, convention is that ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or House of Lords in order to be accountable to Parliament. From time to time, prime ministers appoint non-parliamentarians as ministers. In recent years such ministers have been appointed to the House of Lords. [12]

Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. It requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply (by voting through the government's budgets) and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a general election is held. The support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign even if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House. The House of Commons is thus the responsible house.

The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject. There are also departmental questions when ministers answer questions relating to their specific departmental brief. Unlike PMQs both the cabinet ministers for the department and junior ministers within the department may answer on behalf of the government, depending on the topic of the question.

During debates on legislation proposed by the government, ministers—usually with departmental responsibility for the bill—will lead the debate for the government and respond to points made by MPs or Lords.

Committees [13] of both the House of Commons and House of Lords hold the government to account, scrutinise its work and examine in detail proposals for legislation. Ministers appear before committees to give evidence and answer questions.

Government ministers are also required by convention and the Ministerial Code, [14] when Parliament is sitting, to make major statements regarding government policy or issues of national importance to Parliament. This allows MPs or Lords to question the government on the statement. When the government instead chooses to make announcements first outside Parliament, it is often the subject of significant criticism from MPs and the speaker of the House of Commons. [15]

The prime minister is based at 10 Downing Street in Westminster, London. Cabinet meetings also take place here. Most government departments have their headquarters nearby in Whitehall.

Since 1999, certain areas of central government have been devolved to accountable governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. These are not part of Her Majesty's Government, and are directly accountable to their own institutions, with their own authority under the Crown in contrast, there is no devolved government in England.

Up to three layers of elected local authorities (such as county, district and parish Councils) exist throughout all parts of the United Kingdom, in some places merged into unitary authorities. They have limited local tax-raising powers. Many other authorities and agencies also have statutory powers, generally subject to some central government supervision.

The government's powers include general executive and statutory powers, delegated legislation, and numerous powers of appointment and patronage. However, some powerful officials and bodies, (e.g. HM judges, local authorities, and the charity commissions) are legally more or less independent of the government, and government powers are legally limited to those retained by the Crown under common law or granted and limited by act of Parliament. Both substantive and procedural limitations are enforceable in the courts by judicial review.

Nevertheless, magistrates and mayors can still be arrested for and put on trial for corruption, and the government has powers to insert commissioners into a local authority to oversee its work, and to issue directives that must be obeyed by the local authority, if the local authority is not abiding by its statutory obligations. [dieciséis]

By contrast, as in European Union (EU) member states, EU officials cannot be prosecuted for any actions carried out in pursuit of their official duties, and foreign country diplomats (though not their employees) and foreign members of the European Parliament [17] are immune from prosecution in EU states under any circumstance. As a consequence, neither EU bodies nor diplomats have to pay taxes, since it would not be possible to prosecute them for tax evasion. When the UK was a member of the EU, this caused a dispute when the US ambassador to the UK claimed that London's congestion charge was a tax, and not a charge (despite the name), and therefore he did not have to pay it – a claim the Greater London Authority disputed.

Similarly, the monarch is totally immune from criminal prosecution and may only be sued with her permission (this is known as sovereign immunity). The monarch, by law, is not required to pay income tax, but Queen Elizabeth II has voluntarily paid it since 1993, and also pays local rates voluntarily. However, the monarchy also receives a substantial grant from the government, the Sovereign Support Grant, and Queen Elizabeth II's inheritance from her mother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was exempt from inheritance tax.

In addition to legislative powers, HM Government has substantial influence over local authorities and other bodies set up by it, by financial powers and grants. Many functions carried out by local authorities, such as paying out housing benefit and council tax benefit, are funded or substantially part-funded by central government.

Neither the central government nor local authorities are permitted to sue anyone for defamation. Individual politicians are allowed to sue people for defamation in a personal capacity and without using government funds, but this is relatively rare (although George Galloway, who was a backbench MP for a quarter of a century, has sued or threatened to sue for defamation a number of times). However, it is a criminal offence to make a false statement about any election candidate during an election, with the purpose of reducing the number of votes they receive (as with libel, opinions do not count).


Making of the United Kingdom - History

British Association of Paper Historians

History of Papermaking in the United Kingdom

The first reference to a papermill in the United Kingdom was in a book printed by Wynken de Worde in about 1495, this mill belonging to John Tate and was near Hertford. Other early mills included one at Dartford, owned by Sir John Speilman, who was granted special privileges for the collection of rags by Queen Elizabeth and one built in Buckinghamshire before the end of the sixteenth century. During the first half of the seventeenth century, mills were established near Edinburgh, at Cannock Chase in Staffordshire, and several in Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Surrey. The Bank of England has been issuing bank-notes since 1694, with simple watermarks in them since at least 1697. Henri de Portal was awarded the contract in December 1724 for producing the Bank of England watermarked bank-note paper at Bere Mill in Hampshire. Portals have retained this contract ever since but production is no longer at Bere Mill.

There were two major developments at about the middle of the eighteenth century in the paper industry in the UK. The first was the introduction of the rag-engine or hollander, invented in Holland sometime before 1670, which replaced the stamping mills which had previously been used for the disintegration of the rags and beating of the pulp. The second was in the design and construction of the mould used for forming the sheet. Early moulds had straight wires sewn down on to the wooden foundation, this produced an irregular surface showing the characteristic establecido marks, and, when printed on, the ink did not give clear, sharp lines. Baskerville, a Birmingham printer, wanted a smoother paper. James Whatman the Elder developed a woven wire fabric, thus leading to his production of the first wove paper in 1757.

Increasing demands for more paper during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries led to shortages of the rags needed to produce the paper. Part of the problem was that no satisfactory method of bleaching pulp had yet been devised, and so only white rags could be used to produce white paper. Chlorine bleaching was being used by the end of the eighteenth century, but excessive use produced papers that were of poor quality and deteriorated quickly. By 1800 up to 24 million lb of rags were being used annually, to produce 10,000 tons of paper in England and Wales, and 1000 tons in Scotland, the home market being supplemented by imports, mainly from the continent. Experiments in using other materials, such as sawdust, rye straw, cabbage stumps and spruce wood had been conducted in 1765 by Jacob Christian Schäffer. Similarly, Matthias Koops carried out many experiments on straw and other materials at the Neckinger Mill, Bermondsey around 1800, but it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that pulp produced using straw or wood was utilised in the production of paper.

By 1800 there were 430 (564 in 1821)papermills in England and Wales (mostly single vat mills), under 50 (74 in 1823) in Scotland and 60 in Ireland, but all the production was by hand and the output was low. The first attempt at a papermachine to mechanise the process was patented in 1799 by Frenchman Nicholas Louis Robert, but it was not a success. However, the drawings were brought to England by John Gamble in 1801 and passed on to the brothers Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier, who financed the engineer Bryan Donkin to build the machine. The first successful machine was installed at Frogmore, Hertfordshire, in 1803. The paper was pressed onto an endless wire cloth, transferred to a continuous felt blanket and pressed again, it would have been cut off the reel into sheets and loft dried in the same way as hand made paper. In 1809 John Dickinson patented a machine that that used a wire cloth covered cylinder revolving in a pulp suspension, the water being removed through the centre of the cylinder and the layer of pulp removed from the surface by a felt covered roller (later replaced by a continuous felt passing round a roller). This machine was the forerunner of the present day cylinder mould o vat machine, used mainly for the production of boards. Both these machines produced paper as a wet sheet which require drying after removal from the machine, but in 1821 T B Crompton patented a method of drying the paper continuously, using a woven fabric to hold the sheet against steam heated drying cylinders. After it had been pressed, the paper was cut into sheets by a cutter fixed at the end of the last cylinder.

By the middle of the nineteenth century the pattern for the mechanised production of paper had been set. Subsequent developments concentrated on increasing the size and production of the machines. Similarly, developments in alternative pulps to rags, mainly wood and esparto grass, enabled production increases. Conversely, despite the increase in paper production, there was a decrease, by 1884, in the number of paper mills in England and Wales to 250 and in Ireland to 14 (Scotland increased to 60), production being concentrated into fewer, larger units. Geographical changes also took place as many of the early mills were small and had been situated in rural areas. The change was to larger mills in, or near, urban areas closer to suppliers of the raw materials (esparto mills were generally situated near a port as the raw material was brought in by ship) and the paper markets.


Ver el vídeo: RECORRIDO REINO UNIDO 2021. THE MAKING OF HARRY POTTER (Mayo 2022).