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Frances Balfour

Frances Balfour


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Frances Balfour, hija de George Douglas Campbell, octavo duque de Argyll (1823-1900), nació el 22 de febrero de 1858. Frances, la décima de doce hijos, tenía una enfermedad de la articulación de la cadera y desde la primera infancia sufría de dolores constantes y caminaba. con una cojera.

Su biógrafa, Joan B. Huffman, ha señalado: "Su educación formal fue proporcionada por una institutriz inglesa. Sin embargo, el método principal por el que aprendió a lo largo de su vida fue escuchando y participando en las conversaciones, particularmente en la mesa de la cena. , de sus padres, suegros y conocidos varones, especialmente ministros y políticos, cuya compañía y amistad prefería ".

El duque y la duquesa de Argyll eran partidarios del Partido Liberal en el Parlamento y participaron en varias campañas diferentes de reforma social. Frances también ayudó con estas campañas cuando era niña y una de las formas en que contribuyó fue tejiendo prendas para enviar a los hijos de ex esclavos.

Frances se casó con Eustace Balfour en 1879. Al principio, el duque de Argyll se opuso a la relación porque provenía de una conocida familia conservadora. El tío de Eustace, el marqués de Salisbury, tuvo tres períodos como primer ministro. El hermano mayor de Eustace, Arthur Balfour, también fue un político conservador y más tarde se convertiría en primer ministro de Gran Bretaña (1902-1905). A diferencia de su hermano y su tío, Eustace no participó activamente en la política. Sin embargo, compartió las opiniones conservadoras de su familia y esto provocó un conflicto entre él y su esposa. Frances era un liberal apasionado y un partidario leal de William Gladstone y su gobierno. La pareja nunca superó estas diferencias políticas y pasaba cada vez menos tiempo juntos. Eustace era un gran bebedor y finalmente se convirtió en alcohólico. Eustace murió en 1911.

La pertenencia a la Asociación de Mujeres Sindicalistas Liberales la puso en contacto con feministas como Marie Corbett y Eva Maclaren. En 1887 Balfour se unió a Corbett y Maclaren en la Sociedad Liberal del Sufragio de la Mujer, recientemente formada. Frances Balfour escribió en su diario: "No recuerdo ninguna fecha en la que no fuera una creyente pasiva en los derechos de las mujeres a ser reconocidas como ciudadanas de pleno derecho en este país. Nadie me habló del tema, excepto como chocante o ridículo, más a menudo como una idea malvada, inmodesta y poco femenina ".

Su biógrafa, Joan B. Huffman, ha argumentado: "Lady Frances comenzó su trabajo político cuando se unió a la campaña para asegurar el derecho al voto de las mujeres británicas. De hecho, fue uno de los miembros de más alto rango de la aristocracia en asumir un papel de liderazgo en el movimiento por el sufragio femenino. Una de las pocas mujeres de su clase en agitar por el voto de las mujeres desde la década de 1880 en adelante, se convirtió en una líder de las sufragistas constitucionales. Su feminismo, como gran parte del resto de su filosofía política, se deriva de sus experiencias personales . En su juventud y adolescencia escuchó los argumentos en contra de la esclavitud presentados por miembros de su familia (su madre y su abuela, Harriet, duquesa de Sutherland, eran ardientes abolicionistas). De joven se vio frustrada en su deseo de convertirse en enfermera y frustrada porque podía observar, pero no aspirar a un escaño en el parlamento. Por lo tanto, como feminista, Lady Frances propugnaba la igualdad de derechos para las mujeres y estaba absolutamente convencida de que las mujeres Debe estudiar y prepararse para carreras en todas las profesiones en los mismos términos que los hombres ".

En 1896, Frances Balfour se convirtió en presidenta de la Sociedad Central para el Sufragio de la Mujer. Era una buena oradora y aparecía a menudo en reuniones públicas sufragistas. También estaba bien situada para intentar influir en los miembros destacados de la Cámara de los Comunes. Frances y su cuñada, Betty Balfour, se esforzaron por persuadir a Arthur Balfour de que apoyara el sufragio femenino. Aunque Balfour aceptó la justicia de los derechos de las mujeres, su falta de entusiasmo significó que no estaba dispuesto a luchar por la causa dentro del Partido Conservador, en gran parte antipático.

Balfour era una sufragista completamente pacífica y se oponía totalmente a las acciones militantes de la Unión Política y Social de Mujeres (WSPU). Francis no estaba de acuerdo con su cuñada, Constance Lytton, quien se unió a la WSPU y tuvo que soportar varios períodos de prisión. Frances también se oponía al socialismo y estaba muy descontento con la decisión de la Unión Nacional de Sociedades de Sufragio de Mujeres en 1912 de apoyar al Partido Laborista.

Después de que se concediera el voto a las mujeres, Balfour pasó su tiempo escribiendo libros y artículos. Esto incluyó cinco biografías: Lady Victoria Campbell (1911), La vida y las cartas del reverendo James MacGregor (1912), Dra. Elsie Inglis (1918), La vida de George, cuarto conde de Aberdeen (1923) y Una memoria de Lord Balfour de Burleigh (1925) y una autobiografía, Yo Obliviscaris (1930), donde recuerda: "Mis dones, tal como eran, consistían en ser una especie de oficial de enlace entre el sufragio y las Cámaras del Parlamento, y poseer una buena voz de plataforma.

Lady Frances Balfour murió en su casa de Londres, 32 Addison Road, Kensington, el 25 de febrero de 1931 de neumonía e insuficiencia cardíaca. Fue enterrada en Whittingehame, la casa de la familia Balfour en East Lothian.

En la mesa, en medio de su trabajo, había un pequeño vaso, en el que había una sola flor, o ramita de verde, y no pocas veces un poco de trébol, en un extraño contraste exterior con la gran figura tosca de la señorita Blackburn, sus ojos miopes siempre cerrados. a los periódicos en los que estaba trabajando ... Su rostro estaba muy estropeado por una larga enfermedad, soportada con mucha paciencia, pero a través de su sencillez brillaba el semblante de un gran alma ... La señorita Blackburn era una cronista y anticuaria nativa ... Su conocimiento y experiencia estaban a disposición de todos.

Lady Frances Balfour dio una charla sobre el sufragio femenino. Lady Balfour dijo en la reunión que, según la ley, las mujeres eran clasificadas con indigentes, criminales y lunáticos como no aptas para ejercer el derecho al voto ... Continuó hablando de la gran lucha que tenían las mujeres en materia de educación, la dificultad que tenían para conseguirlo. en la profesión médica y la participación en el gobierno local ... Uno de los argumentos utilizados en contra de que las mujeres tuvieran el voto fue que no podían luchar, por lo tanto, no tenían derecho a una voz en estos asuntos relacionados con las guerras, pero esto era ridículo, para quien ¿Fue quien sufrió más en tiempos de guerra? Mujeres, porque perdieron a sus maridos e hijos.

Lady Balfour me llevó a ver a Arthur Balfour en privado. Cuando llegamos, me pidió que le dijera lo que pensaba que podía hacer por nosotros. Tuve una larga charla con él ... Allí estaba sentado en un sillón envejecido, sus largas piernas de araña estiradas ... Constantemente olfateaba una botella pequeña. Me pregunté qué contenía y pensé que la conversación podría molestarlo ... Era hora de irse y no se había comprometido más de lo que esperaba.

Acabo de regresar de una noche con los militantes… La policía en líneas continuas convirtió a las mujeres en Victoria Street. Aquí vimos varios arrestos, todas las mujeres demostraron un valor extraordinario en las violentas acometidas de la multitud que las rodeaba ... Dos mujeres, exactamente frente a nosotros, arrojaron piedras a las ventanas. Pobres tiros; No creo que el cristal esté roto. Un policía voló hacia ellos y les rodeó el cuello con los brazos antes de que pudiéramos guiñar un ojo. La valentía que se atreve con este manejo lo admiro. Hay un buen espíritu, pero si no se desperdicia en estas tácticas sigue siendo una duda en mi mente.

Pocas cosas afectaron más mi visión de la vida que su ejemplo. Hacía que uno se avergonzara de la fe a medias y de la cobardía. Estableció un estándar, por el cual las mujeres sentían que debían medirse a sí mismas, y al sentirse necesitadas, sentían que debían vivir más finamente. Eso es lo que los héroes y los santos hacen por nosotros, elevan nuestros estándares de fe y logros. Hoy siento el mismo impulso profundo de gratitud y amor que sentimos en los días oscuros cuando ella estaba en prisión por nosotros.

De alguna manera no puedo pensar en el fallecimiento de tu hermana Constance con algún sentido de quebrantamiento, solo un sentido de una gran emergencia hacia una mayor libertad y actividad ... No me importa en lo más mínimo si sus acciones fueron sabias o tontas. Simplemente digo que ella participó en la alteración del mundo y la formación del pensamiento entre las mujeres. ¿Quién podría pedir un mejor epitafio? "


Jane Frances Balfour

@ R-1697855858 @ 1900 Censo federal de Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Datos originales - Estados Unidos de América, Oficina del Censo. Duodécimo Censo de los Estados Unidos, 1900. Washington, D.C .: Administración Nacional de Archivos y Registros, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: 1900 Lugar del censo: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rol: T623_666 Página: 11B Enumeración Distrito: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Fecha de nacimiento: mayo de 1858 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de matrimonio: 1883 Lugar de matrimonio: Fecha de residencia: 1900 Lugar de residencia: ciudad de Somerville, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1910 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006 Datos originales - Decimotercer censo de los Estados Unidos, 1910 (publicación en microfilm de NARA T624, 1.178 rollos) . Registros de la Oficina del Censo, Grupo de registros 29. Archivos nacionales, era 1,7884 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: Censo de 1910 Lugar: Distrito 5 de Somerville, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rollo: Página: Distrito de enumeración: Imagen:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1910uscenindex&h=134003122&ti. Fecha de nacimiento: 1859 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1910 Lugar de residencia: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7884 :: 134003122

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1880 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com y La Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU.: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. Índice del censo de 1880 de EE. UU. Proporcionado por la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días & # x00a9 Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Todos los derechos reservados. Todo uso está sujeto al límite de 1,6742 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: 1880 Censo Lugar: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rollo: 557 Película de historia familiar: 1254557 Página: 259A Enumeración Distrito: 696 Imagen: 0519. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1880usfedcen&h=44090545&ti= 0 & amp. Fecha de nacimiento: abt 1858 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1880 Lugar de residencia: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos 1,6742 :: 44090545

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1870 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Imágenes reproducidas por FamilySearch. Datos originales: censo de 1870 de EE. UU., Listas de población. Publicación en microfilm de NARA M593, 1,761 rollos. Washington, D.C .: Archivos Nacionales y Registro 1,7163 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: Censo de 1870 Lugar: Distrito 7 de Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rollo: M593_ Página: Imagen:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1870usfedcen&h=26658698&ti=0&. Fecha de nacimiento: abt 1859 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1870 Lugar de residencia: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos 1,7163 :: 26658698

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ Massachusetts, Registros de matrimonio, 1840-1915 Ancestry.com Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 1,2511 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Sociedad Genealógica Histórica de Nueva Inglaterra Boston, Massachusetts 1,2511 :: 12579978

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1900 Censo federal de Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Datos originales - Estados Unidos de América, Oficina del Censo. Duodécimo Censo de los Estados Unidos, 1900. Washington, D.C .: Administración Nacional de Archivos y Registros, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: 1900 Lugar del censo: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rol: T623_666 Página: 11B Enumeración Distrito: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Fecha de nacimiento: mayo de 1858 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de matrimonio: 1883 Lugar de matrimonio: Fecha de residencia: 1900 Lugar de residencia: ciudad de Somerville, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1900 Censo federal de Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Datos originales - Estados Unidos de América, Oficina del Censo. Duodécimo Censo de los Estados Unidos, 1900. Washington, D.C .: Administración Nacional de Archivos y Registros, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: 1900 Lugar del censo: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rol: T623_666 Página: 11B Enumeración Distrito: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Fecha de nacimiento: mayo de 1858 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de matrimonio: 1883 Lugar de matrimonio: Fecha de residencia: 1900 Lugar de residencia: Ciudad de Somerville, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1910 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006 Datos originales - Decimotercer censo de los Estados Unidos, 1910 (publicación en microfilm de NARA T624, 1.178 rollos) . Registros de la Oficina del Censo, Grupo de registros 29. Archivos nacionales, era 1,7884 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: Censo de 1910 Lugar: Distrito 5 de Somerville, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rollo: Página: Distrito de enumeración: Imagen:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1910uscenindex&h=134003122&ti. Fecha de nacimiento: 1859 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1910 Lugar de residencia: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7884 :: 134003122

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1880 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com y La Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. Índice del censo de 1880 de EE. UU. Proporcionado por la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días & # x00a9 Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Todos los derechos reservados. Todo uso está sujeto al límite de 1,6742 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: 1880 Censo Lugar: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rollo: 557 Película de historia familiar: 1254557 Página: 259A Enumeración Distrito: 696 Imagen: 0519. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1880usfedcen&h=44090545&ti= 0 & amp. Fecha de nacimiento: abt 1858 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1880 Lugar de residencia: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos 1,6742 :: 44090545

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ 1870 Censo federal de los Estados Unidos Ancestry.com Publicación en línea - Provo, UT, EE. UU .: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Imágenes reproducidas por FamilySearch. Datos originales: censo de 1870 de EE. UU., Listas de población. Publicación en microfilm de NARA M593, 1,761 rollos. Washington, D.C .: Archivos Nacionales y Registro 1,7163 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Año: Censo de 1870 Lugar: Distrito 7 de Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rollo: M593_ Página: Imagen:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1870usfedcen&h=26658698&ti=0&. Fecha de nacimiento: abt 1859 Lugar de nacimiento: Massachusetts Fecha de residencia: 1870 Lugar de residencia: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos 1,7163 :: 26658698

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ U.S. City Directories (Beta) Publicación en línea de Ancestry.com - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011 Datos originales - Las fuentes originales varían según el directorio. El título del directorio específico que se está viendo aparece en la parte superior de la página del visor de imágenes. Consulta el directorio titl 1,2469 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ U.S. City Directories (Beta) Publicación en línea de Ancestry.com - Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011 Datos originales - Las fuentes originales varían según el directorio. El título del directorio específico que se está viendo aparece en la parte superior de la página del visor de imágenes. Consulta el directorio titl 1,2469 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Fuente GEDCOM

@ R-1697855858 @ Massachusetts, Registros de matrimonio, 1840-1915 Ancestry.com Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 1,2511 :: 0

Fuente GEDCOM

Sociedad Genealógica Histórica de Nueva Inglaterra Boston, Massachusetts 1,2511 :: 12579978


Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, aristócrata sufragista

Uno de los elogios de Lady France Balfour señaló que sería considerada una de las mujeres más importantes de Escocia, pero hoy en día, pocas saben quién era o qué hizo por las mujeres británicas. La biografía de Joan B. Huffman es un esfuerzo por dejar las cosas claras y contar la primera historia completa y precisa de esta notable mujer. Los padres y abuelos de Lady Frances Balfour eran progresistas y ella se interesó por el mundo de la política desde una edad temprana. Cuando se casó con Eustace Balfour, hermano de Arthur Balfour, siguió intrigada por la política. Sin embargo, como mujer de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, prácticamente no tenía poder y tuvo que buscar otros métodos para perseguir sus intereses. En 1889, encontró su vocación en la lucha por el sufragio, donde era la principal cabildera de los constitucionalistas en el Parlamento. Desde luchar por los derechos de las mujeres trabajadoras a los trabajos e ingresos razonables hasta defender la seguridad de las mujeres no acompañadas atraídas a Londres por charlatanes y apoyar a la Dra. Elsie Inglis, fundadora de los Scottish Women's Hospitals, hasta formar parte de varios comités gubernamentales, incluido uno que estudió el Leyes de divorcio enormemente injustas, Frances trabajó y sirvió hasta su último día, a pesar del dolor diario de un problema de cadera que fue tratado incorrectamente en su juventud. Lady Frances es la única líder de la campaña de votos para las mujeres que carece de una biografía, sin embargo, fue la única aristócrata y la única escocesa que tuvo un papel de liderazgo nacional en esa campaña. Esta biografía atraerá a los lectores interesados ​​en la historia británica, en particular a aquellos que quieran saber más sobre una activista clave por los derechos de las mujeres.


Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, aristócrata, sufragista

Joan B Huffman proporciona una visión convincente y meticulosamente investigada sobre uno de los miembros de más alto rango de la aristocracia británica para asumir un papel de liderazgo en el movimiento del sufragio femenino.

El libro describe con gran detalle la vida de Lady Frances Balfour, un personaje poco conocido que hizo mucho por las mujeres británicas.

Con relatos detallados de Lady Balfour luchando por los derechos de las mujeres trabajadoras a empleos e ingresos razonables, apoyando a la Dra. Elsie Inglis en su búsqueda para fundar hospitales de mujeres escocesas y sirviendo en varios comités gubernamentales, esta biografía intenta aclarar las cosas.

Lady Balfour se interesó por la política desde una edad temprana, pero como era una mujer en el siglo XIX, le resultó difícil perseguir sus intereses.

En 1889 encontró su vocación en la lucha por el sufragio donde era la principal cabildera de los constitucionalistas en el parlamento.

El libro sigue su desarrollo como política y, lo más importante, como ser humano. Aunque en algunos puntos el texto es un poco pesado en detalles y fechas, fluye muy bien para una biografía de este tipo y representa una ventana fascinante a la Gran Bretaña del siglo XIX.

Las numerosas citas de las cartas y diarios de Lady Frances conectan al lector directamente con ella como persona, y no simplemente como un nombre abstracto en una página de historia.

La publicación del libro llega en un momento oportuno para el movimiento feminista en el Reino Unido, ya que este año marca el centenario de algunas mujeres que obtuvieron acceso al voto en 1918.

Este retrato bien elaborado, equilibrado y fascinante de un personaje increíble y pasado por alto de nuestro pasado atraerá a los lectores interesados ​​en la historia británica y, en particular, a los interesados ​​en la historia feminista.

También brinda una oportunidad para que las nuevas generaciones conozcan más sobre esta figura inspiradora.

Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, aristócrata y sufragista, por Joan B Huffman, Troubador Publishing, £ 19,99.


Centro de Asuntos Públicos de Jerusalén

* La embajadora Dore Gold es la editora invitada de este número especial de la Revisión de estudios políticos judíos.

El propósito declarado de la Declaración Balfour del 2 de noviembre de 1917 y las circunstancias bajo las cuales se publicó son generalmente conocidos. 1 La explicación más común fue que Gran Bretaña y las potencias aliadas estaban movidas por el idealismo y sus intereses. En un punto crítico de la Primera Guerra Mundial, el gabinete británico necesitaba asegurar el apoyo judío mundial para la causa aliada y esperaba, al mismo tiempo, mantener tanto a Estados Unidos como a Rusia de su lado. Sin embargo, con el tiempo, la comprensión mundial de la Declaración se ha convertido en objeto de amargas controversias e interpretaciones revisionistas. De hecho, la Autoridad Palestina de hoy llegó a calificarlo de "crimen". 2

Cabe señalar que la declaración fue mucho más que un acto unilateral del gobierno de Su Majestad. El 4 de junio de 1917, el ministro de Relaciones Exteriores francés, Jules Cambon, escribió a Nahum Sokolow que el gobierno francés sentía simpatía por su causa, que Cambon definió como “el renacimiento de la nacionalidad judía en esa tierra de la que se exilió el pueblo de Israel. hace tantos siglos ".

Además, antes de publicar la Declaración, la diplomacia británica primero obtuvo el apoyo del presidente Woodrow Wilson y del gobierno estadounidense. Habiendo hecho esto, los británicos comenzaron a construir una base más amplia de apoyo internacional para la idea del Hogar Nacional Judío. El 24 de julio de 1922, la promesa británica de ayudar a construir el Hogar Nacional Judío se incorporó explícitamente al texto del Mandato de la Liga de Naciones, que pedía "poner en vigor" sus términos. La Declaración Balfour se transformó así en una obligación vinculante en virtud del derecho internacional. Además, fue aprobado por unanimidad por el Consejo de la Sociedad de Naciones, integrado por cincuenta y un estados miembros. Este consenso ampliado de apoyo internacional incluiría en última instancia a Argentina, Bélgica, Brasil, Canadá, China, Francia, Grecia, Italia, Japón, Siam, Suecia y el Vaticano. 3 Martin Kramer observó que “a primera vista, la declaración era una carta de intención británica unilateral. En verdad, al expresar un amplio consenso de los aliados, incluso podría verse como más o menos comparable a una resolución del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU hoy ". 4

Por separado, se ha hecho evidente que la idea del Hogar Nacional Judío desarrolló su propio impulso. Recientemente, Wolfgang Schwanitz informó sobre un descubrimiento notable. Informó en un manuscrito inédito, "La Declaración Otomana Balfour", que el 12 de agosto de 1918, dos meses y medio antes de que terminara la guerra, Talaat Pasha, el Gran Visir del Imperio Otomano, emitió la siguiente declaración: "... Nosotros han resuelto eliminar todas las medidas restrictivas y definitivamente abolir las regulaciones restrictivas sobre la inmigración y el asentamiento de judíos en Palestina. Les aseguro mi simpatía por la creación de un centro religioso judío en Palestina mediante una inmigración y colonización bien organizadas. Es mi deseo poner este trabajo bajo la protección del gobierno turco ”. 5 La declaración fue sorprendente dada la hostilidad otomana & # 8217 hacia las minorías, en particular su población armenia.

La Declaración Balfour es importante porque reconoce el vínculo histórico del pueblo judío con Tierra Santa, un vínculo que existía mucho antes de la declaración. Lo significativo fue su reconocimiento público y formal y su incorporación al derecho internacional. En su testimonio ante la Comisión Peel el 7 de enero de 1937, David Ben Gurion trazó la distinción entre la precedencia de los hechos históricos y su reconocimiento moderno:

Digo en nombre de los judíos que la Biblia es nuestro Mandato, la Biblia que fue escrita por nosotros, en nuestro propio idioma, en hebreo en este mismo país. Ese es nuestro Mandato. Es sólo el reconocimiento de este derecho lo que se expresó en la Declaración Balfour. 6

La Declaración Balfour es un documento tremendamente importante porque contiene el reconocimiento mundial de los derechos históricos del pueblo judío a un hogar nacional. En el documento del Mandato, se afirma: "Considerando que, por lo tanto, se ha reconocido la conexión histórica del pueblo judío con Palestina y los motivos para reconstituir su hogar nacional en ese país". Por lo tanto, el Mandato y la Declaración Balfour, en los que se basó, no crearon derechos históricos judíos, sino que reconocieron un derecho preexistente.

El reclamo judío de Tierra Santa se basa en hechos, y podemos entenderlo por el lenguaje y la elección de palabras de Chaim Weizmann cuando explicó que se trataba de un evento histórico importante. Llamó a la Declaración Balfour un "acto de restitución" y la describió enfáticamente como un "acto único de la conciencia moral mundial". Expresando su profunda conciencia de la continuidad histórica a lo largo de milenios, lo llamó "la corrección de un error histórico" y un "acto de justicia". 7

Sir Isaiah Berlin, escribiendo en la década de 1960, declaró que "Su nombre [de Weizmann] se vinculó indisolublemente con esta [Declaración Balfour], el mayor evento en la historia judía desde la destrucción de Judea". 8

Además, Jacob, el cuarto Lord Rothschild, ahora de 80 años, y jefe de la dinastía bancaria de la familia, le dijo al ex embajador israelí del Reino Unido, Daniel Taub, que la declaración de apoyo a una patria judía en Palestina “fue el evento más grande en la vida judía durante miles de años. , un milagro…." 9

El significado práctico de la Declaración Balfour es que en nuestros tiempos es la base moderna de la legitimidad del Hogar Nacional Judío y el Estado de Israel. Ganar la Declaración Balfour fue un logro histórico importante y, en consecuencia, los enemigos de la causa nacional judía han apuntado a la Declaración y se han esforzado por negarla, principalmente a través de una campaña de falsificación de la historia.

& # 8230 Los esfuerzos para socavar el reclamo judío de la Tierra de Israel datan de mucho antes de 1967, hasta la década de 1920. La gente afirmaba, entre otras cosas, que los judíos de hoy en día no eran los verdaderos descendientes del pueblo judío, sino los descendientes del Juzarim [Khazars]. Asimismo, la comparación de los sionistas con los nazis se remonta a la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En el momento en que los nazis estaban ocupados exterminando a los judíos europeos, los funcionarios británicos comparaban a los sionistas con los nazis. 10

El histórico apego judío a la Tierra de Israel es el verdadero reclamo de la condición de Estado. La tendencia a justificar el sionismo sobre la base del Holocausto es totalmente errónea. El sionismo no solo fue un movimiento próspero y exitoso antes de esta tragedia, sino que el Holocausto destruyó su mayor reserva humana y la hizo retroceder severamente. Además, los árabes siempre se han representado erróneamente a sí mismos como las verdaderas víctimas del Holocausto al verse supuestamente obligados a pagar la factura de esta tragedia. Ellos, además, se esfuerzan por socavar el reclamo de Israel, remontándose a 1948 y describiéndolo como un estado & # 8220 nacido en pecado ”. Los árabes y sus defensores argumentan que el sionismo aspiró desde sus inicios a destruir al pueblo palestino, despojarlo de su patrimonio y aprovechó la oportunidad aprovechada por la partición y la guerra concomitante. 11

La guerra contra la Declaración Balfour incluyó continuos ataques a su legalidad y al vínculo histórico que reconocía. Este asalto a la legitimidad de Israel ha incluido la negación de la historia judía en organismos internacionales como la ONU. Recientemente, ha incluido el lanzamiento de un año de protesta por parte de la Autoridad Palestina contra este "crimen" y exigiendo una disculpa del gobierno británico.

El ataque de hoy de los árabes palestinos a la Declaración Balfour no es nuevo. Tiene un precedente vergonzoso. En el vigésimo sexto aniversario de la Declaración Balfour, el 2 de noviembre de 1943, Hajj Amin-al Husseini, ex Mufti de Jerusalén y Director del Instituto Musulmán de Berlín, se dirigió al mundo desde la Luftwaffe Hall. Allí, prometió su apoyo incondicional a los alemanes, "que definitivamente han resuelto el problema judío". 12

En esta ocasión festiva, el canciller von Ribbentrop y el líder de las SS, Heinrich Himmler, enviaron telegramas de apoyo. Himmler escribió:

El Partido Nacionalsocialista ha inscrito en su bandera "el exterminio de los judíos del mundo". Nuestro partido simpatiza con la lucha de los árabes, especialmente los árabes de Palestina, contra los judíos extranjeros. Hoy, en este día conmemorativo de la Declaración Balfour, le envío mis saludos y deseos de éxito en su lucha. 13

La población judía de la Palestina Mandataria contribuyó con un gran número de voluntarios y comprometió su mano de obra, agricultura, manufactura y experiencia a la causa aliada. Desafortunadamente, esta contribución fue pronto olvidada. Cuando nació el Estado de Israel en 1948, fue invadido por una coalición de ejércitos árabes que recibieron su entrenamiento y armas de las principales potencias coloniales de Oriente Medio en ese momento: Gran Bretaña y Francia. Irónicamente, el ascenso de Israel fue un desarrollo anticolonial que aceleró la desaparición de los imperios coloniales europeos y el surgimiento de estados independientes.

Nuestra comprensión de la Declaración Balfour hoy puede verse como parte de una guerra política para preservar la integridad del registro histórico. En el gran ajuste de cuentas histórico que aún debe tener lugar, es necesario comprender ciertos hechos históricos. Estos incluirían: 1) la importancia de la Declaración Balfour y su posición como un compromiso garantizado por el derecho internacional 2) La participación del Yishuv durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial del lado de las Potencias Aliadas 3) La deshonrosa retirada de Gran Bretaña de las obligaciones de la Declaración Balfour y su incapacidad para recompensar a su fiel aliado.

Durante el centenario de la Declaración Balfour, nuestro debate se ha visto afectado por los esfuerzos de los enemigos de Israel por tergiversar y falsear los hechos históricos. Intentan retratar al Israel moderno como un producto del colonialismo europeo, simple y llanamente, sin raíces en la tierra y sin derechos históricos. No es posible aceptar los mitos y falsedades de una llamada "narrativa", que supuestamente puede pesar más que los hechos históricos. En un lenguaje sencillo, el Israel moderno es el heredero y sucesor del antiguo Israel. La Declaración Balfour reconoció este vínculo y, al hacerlo, mostró al mundo "un acto único de conciencia moral mundial".

1 El 28 de febrero de este año, el Centro de Asuntos Públicos de Jerusalén con el apoyo de la Fundación Konrad Adenauer convocó una conferencia para conmemorar y reevaluar el significado de la Declaración Balfour, cuyo centenario se acercaba pronto. El Centro invitó a destacados académicos a examinar la Declaración desde diferentes puntos de vista y compartir sus hallazgos.

2 “Los palestinos se preparan para conmemorar los 100 años de la Declaración Balfour”, 24 de octubre de 2016, WAFA http://english.wafa.ps/page.aspx?id=G8NFN5a50719869123aG8NFN5

5 Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, “The Ottoman Balfour Declaration,” (2015) unpublished manuscript, cited with the author’s permission.

6 Conor Cruise O’Brien, The Seige (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), 225.

7 Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949), 252. Some of this information is paraphrased from an essay of Joel Fishman, with his consent.

8 Sir Isaiah Berlin, “The Biographical Facts,” in Meyer W. Weisgal and Joel Carmichael, eds. Chaim Weizmann A Biography of Several Hands (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962), 36.

9 Interview by Ambassador Daniel Taub, “Lord Rothschild discusses cousin’s crucial role in ‘miracle’ Balfour Declaration,” Tiempos de Israel, February 8, 2017, http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/rothschild/. The following background information was published by the Rothschild archives, “Beginning in 1916, the British hoped that in exchange for their support of Zionism, ‘the Jews’ would help to finance the growing expenses of the First World War, which was becoming increasingly burdensome. More importantly, policy-makers in the Foreign Office believed that Jews could be prevailed upon to persuade the United States to join the War. At this time, there were very strong pro-Zionist feelings by many of the political elite and establishment. Many of Britain’s leaders, including Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and Balfour himself, felt for the Jews and their history. These men were deeply religious Christian Zionists. They had grown up on the Bible the Holy Land was their spiritual home. They believed that modern Zionism would fulfil a divine promise, and re-settle the Jews in the land of their ancient fathers.” “Walter Rothschild and the Balfour Declaration,” The Rothschild Archive, https://www.rothschildarchive.org/contact/faqs/walter_rothschild_and_the_balfour_declaration.

10 Personal communication between Prof. Efraim Karsh and Joel Fishman, July 22, 2011.

12 Maurice Pearlman, Mufti of Jerusalem: The Story of Haj Amin el Husseini (London: Gollancz, 1947), 49 as quoted by Joel Fishman, “The Recent Discovery of Heinrich Himmler’s Telegram of November 2, 1943, the Anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, to Amin al Husseini. Mufti of Jerusalem.” Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 27, Nos. 3-4 (Fall 2016): 77-87.


How was it received by Palestinians and Arabs?

In 1919, then-US President Woodrow Wilson appointed a commission to look into public opinion on the mandatory system in Syria and Palestine.

The investigation was known as the King-Crane commission. It found that the majority of Palestinians expressed a strong opposition to Zionism, leading the conductors of the commission to advise a modification of the mandate’s goal.

The late Awni Abd al-Hadi, a Palestinian political figure and nationalist, condemned the Balfour Declaration in his memoirs, saying it was made by an English foreigner who had no claim to Palestine, to a foreign Jew who had no right to it.

In 1920, the Third Palestinian Congress in Haifa decried the British government’s plans to support the Zionist project and rejected the declaration as a violation of international law and of the rights of the indigenous population.

However, the other important source for insight into Palestinian opinion on the declaration – the press – was closed down by the Ottomans at the start of the war in 1914 and only began to reappear in 1919, but under British military censorship.

In November 1919, when the al-Istiqlal al-Arabi (Arab independence) newspaper, based in Damascus, was reopened, one article said in response to a public speech by Herbert Samuel, a Jewish cabinet minister, in London on the second anniversary of the Balfour Declaration: “Our country is Arab, Palestine is Arab, and Palestine must remain Arab.”

Even prior to the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate, pan-Arab newspapers warned against the motives of the Zionist movement and its potential outcomes in displacing Palestinians from their land.

Khalil Sakakini, a Jerusalemite writer and teacher, described Palestine in the immediate aftermath of the war as follows: “A nation which has long been in the depths of sleep only awakes if it is rudely shaken by events, and only arises little by little … This was the situation of Palestine, which for many centuries has been in the deepest sleep, until it was shaken by the great war, shocked by the Zionist movement, and violated by the illegal policy [of the British], and it awoke, little by little.”

Increased Jewish immigration under the mandate created tensions and violence between the Palestinian Arabs and the European Jews. One of the first popular responses to British actions was the Nebi Musa revolt in 1920 that led to the killing of four Palestinian Arabs and five immigrant Jews.


Frances Balfour - History

The Genealogy of the Balfour Family.

Jerome Balfour.

John Balfour.

James Balfour.

Peter Balfour.

Nicholas Balfour. Born 1578.

James Balfour. Born c.1581.

Rev Andrew Balfour. Born ca 1587. Died 7 July 1624. Minister of Kirknewtown, 1587-1624. Casado Isobel Arnot.

James Balfour. Born 1619. Advocate. Married 1645 Bridget (Beatrice) Chalmers.

Bridget Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1648.

Helen Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1650.

James Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1652. Died 1703. Governor of Darien Company in which he invested and lost a fair amount. Married 23 June 1679 Helen Smith, dau of Robert Smith and Elizabeth Hope. Helen married second, 1712, William Cochrane Jr of Rochsoles.

Mary Balfour. Born 1680. Died before 1702.

James Balfour 1st of Pilrig. Born 1681. Died 3 February 1737. Bought Pilrig 1718. Married, 10 September 1704, Louisa Hamilton (born 1686 died 1750).

James Balfour 2nd of Pilrig. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1705. Died 6 March 1795. Appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy. Painted by Stavely 1790. Married, August 1737, Cecilia Elphinstone (born 1705 died 1780). She became blind.

James Balfour. Born 1738. Died 1755 aged seventeen.

John ("Jack") Balfour 3rd of Pilrig. Born 1740. Died 17 February 1814. Married c.1772 Jean Whytt (born 1750 died 20 November 1833).

James Balfour, 4th of Pilrig. Born 7 January 1774. Died 20 March 1860. Married 1806 Anne Mackintosh (born 1787 died 29 June 1825), dau of Captain John Mackintosh.

Margaret Balfour. Born 1807. Died 27 January 1860. Married Rev John Paul (born 12 March 1796, died 18 May 1873).

Rev William Paul. Minister of Whitekirk. Born 16 September 1832. Died 25 September 1866.

James Balfour Paul, Lyon King at Arms. Born 16 November 1846. Died 15 September 1931. Married Helen Margaret Forman (died 20 December 1929), dau of J N Forman of Staffs.

John Balfour. Born 1808. Died 1811.

James Balfour. Born 1810. Died 1811.

John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville. Born 1811. Died 22 September 1893. Married Annie Rainy (born 1820 died 17 December 1891), dau of Prof Harry Rainy.

Anne Mackintosh Balfour. Born 1845. Died 1881. Married 1869 Charles A Cunningham, later Major-General.

Barbara Gordon Balfour-Melville. Born 1846.

Margaret Jane Balfour-Melville. Born 1849. Died 30 July 1941.

Jane Balfour. Born 1812. Died 14 May 1842.

James Balfour-Melville. Born 1815. Died 1898. Married Eliza Ogilvy Maitland-Heriot (died 1897), dau of James Heriot.

James Heriot Balfour-Melville. Born 1845. Died 1913. Married 1878 Mary Louisa Dundas (died 1930), dau of Sir David Dundas of Dunira, Bt.

Frederick Maitland Balfour. Born 1847. Died 1907. Married Sarah Hillard (born 1847 died 1917).

Francis Douglas Balfour. Born 1847. Died 1859.

John Elphinston Balfour. Born 1849. Died 1928.

Robert Andrew Agnew Balfour-Melville. Born 1849. Died 1942. Married 1891 Frances Janetta Campbell (died 1947), dau of Rev Dr Campbell.

Leslie Melville Balfour-Melville. Born 9 March 1854. Died 16 July 1937. Married 1873 Jeannie Amelia ("Jane") Wilson (died 1890), dau of Dr Wilson.

Emma Constance Balfour-Melville. Born 1857. Died 1941.

Elliot Southesk Balfour-Melville. Born 1860. Died 1912.

Anne Balfour. Born 1816. Died 16 May 1842.

Robert Balfour. Born 1818. Died 14 August 1869. Director, Edinburgh Academy. Casado Frances ("Fanny") Grace Blaikie (born Aberdeen 22 October 1821 died 1891).

Lewis Balfour. Born and died 1820.

Robert Balfour. Born 1774. Died 13 November 1782.

John Balfour. Born 1776. Died 17 December 1859. Married first Helen Buchanon (died 1816).

John Balfour. Born 1811. Died 1876. Married Agnes Boyle.

Thomas Graham Balfour. Born 18 March 1813. Died 17 January 1891. Married Georgina Prentice (born 12 August 1819).

Buchanon Balfour. Born 1816. Married Frances ("Fanny") E. Hazell (born 1821).

Robert Gordon Balfour. Born 1826. Died 1905. Married Margaret Naismith.

Hugh Melville Balfour. Born 1828. Died 29 December 1853.

James Balfour. Born Edinburgh 10 May 1830. Died Kew, Melbourne, Australia 24 August 1913. Married Frances ("Fanny") Charlotte Henty.

Jane Christiana Balfour. Born 1834. Died 1896. Married c.1832 George Rainy, MD (died 19 June 1969).

Helen Balfour. Born 1835. Died 18 September 1906.

Rev Lewis Balfour. Born 30 August 1777. Died 24 April 1860. Married Henrietta ("Helen") Scott Smith (born 1787 died 13 March 1844).

Dr John Balfour. Born 8 July 1809. Died 13 December 1886. Married Josephine Marianne Smith (born 1830 died 1887).

Lewis ("Delhi") Balfour. Born 1850. Died 1894.

Josephine ("Jessie") Balfour. Born 1854. Died 1877. Married _____ Park.

Henrietta ("Elta") Balfour. Born 1857. Died after 1881. Married _____ Younger.

George F Balfour. Born 1862. Died after 1881.

Marion Balfour. Born 29 November 1811. Bap 3 December 1811. Died 14 December 1884. Married Colonel John Alexander Wilson, RA (born 1793 died 1857).

Major James H Wilson. Born 1837. Died 1890.

Sidney Mary Beckwith Wilson. Born 1840. Died 1908. Married _____ Sitwell.

Marion Louisa Wilson. Born 1842. Married ____ Scott.

Matilda ("Maud") Whytt Wilson. Born 1844. Died 1919. Married _____ Wright. Married _____ Babington.

Jane Whytt Whyte Elizabeth Ann Wilson. Born 1846. Died 1903. Married Rev Carleton Greene (born 1844, died 1924).

Lewis H B Wilson. Born 1848. Died 1926.

Margaret Graham Wilson. Born 1851. Died Thanet 4th qtr 1900. Married Bury St Edmunds 2nd qtr 1877 Rev Frederick William Crick MA of Pembroke College, Cambridge (born 1853, died Long Bredy, Dorset 26 May 1924).

John G Y Wilson. Born 1853.

George Smith Balfour. Born 20 July 1813. Died 3 May 1816.

Jane Whyte Balfour. Born 6 November 1816. Bap 20 March 1816. Died 6 February 1907.

Lewis Balfour. Born 14 September 1817. Died 13 February 1870. Married Louisa Amelia Barton (born 1822, died 1858).

Lewis ("Noona") Balfour. Born 1842. Died 1873.

Emilia ("Mina") H Balfour. Born 1848. Died 1917.

Lewis married second Caroline ("Carrie") Louisa Sissmore (died 1924).

Arthur Balfour. Died after 1861.

Claud Balfour. Died after 1861.

Alfred Balfour. Died after 1861.

James Balfour. Born 30 July 1819. Died 20 June 1824.

William Somerville Balfour. Born 1821. Died 1821.

George William Balfour, MD, LL D. Born 2 May (or June) 1823. Died 9 August 1903. Married first Agnes Thomson (born 1825, died 1851).

(Lewis) Cramond Balfour. Born 1850. Died 1885.

Mackintosh Balfour. Born 9 March 1825. Bap 26 April 1825. Died 7 June 1884. Married Elisabeth Cecilia de Verinne (born 1829, died 1860).

Mackintosh James Balfour. Born 21 January 1851.. Married Evelyn Jane Usher (born 5 September 1853, died 3 May 1926).

(baby boy) Balfour. Born 1826. Died 1826.

Henrietta Louisa Balfour. Bap 11 April 1828. Married Ramsay Heatley Traquair (born 1820 died after 1881).

Henrietta Traquair. Born 1850. Died 1902. Married James Milne (born 1849).

William Traquair. Born 1851. Died 1923.

Margaret ("Maggie") Isabella Balfour. Born 11 February 1829. Bap 16 March 1829. Died 14 May 1897. Married Thomas ("Tom") C E Stevenson (born 22 July 1818 died 8 May 1887).

Robert Lewis ("Louis") Balfour Stevenson. Born Edinburgh 13 November 1850. Died Vailima, Samoa 3 December 1894. Married Frances ("Fanny") Matilda van de Grift Osbourne (born 1840 died 1914).

James Melville Balfour, CE. Born 8 June 1831. Bap 8 July 1831. Died 18 December 1869. Married Christina Simson (born 1837).

Marie Clothilde ("Chloe") Balfour Stevenson. Born 1862.

Louisa Mackenzie Balfour. Born 1779. Died April 1859. Married 10 November 1805 John Mackenzie.

Daniel Mackenzie. Married Emma Hughes.

James Mackenzie. Married Elizabeth Campbell.

Melville Balfour. Born 1781. Died 1828. Married Joanna Brunton.

John Balfour. Born 7 March 1816. Died 1875. Married Ann Traill.

Walter Brunton Balfour. Born 18 August 1818.

Mary Cecilia Balfour. Born 1742. Married 1761 William Gibson (died 5 May 1807), son of John Gibson of Durie and Helen, n e Carmichael of Skirling. He and his brother-in-law John Balfour were of the firm of Gibson, Balfour & Aitken which collapsed c.1772. She began a haberdasher's hop. They had ten sons and two daughters including:

Sir William Gibson-Craig, 2nd Bt, PC, MP for Midlothian and for Edinburgh. Commissioner for the Duchy of Cornwall. Born 2 August 1797. Died 12 March 1878. Married Elizabeth Sarah Vivian (died 15 December 1895).

James Thomson Gibson. Born 12 March 1799. Married Jane Grant (died 25 April 1863).

John Jaime Gibson Thomson.

Lewis Balfour. Born 1746. Died 1806.

Robert Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1706. Died 1764. Married Anne Ellis.

William Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1708. Died 1708.

Helen Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1709. Died 1793. Married c.1721/3 Bailie Gavin Hamilton (died 1st January 1767). Publisher and bookseller.

Louisa Hamilton. Born April/May 1733. Died 1793. Married Dr James Wodrow (born 1730 died 1810/11), minister at Steventon.

Dr Robert Hamilton. Born June 1743. Died July 1829. Professor of Mathematics Principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen. Married first Miss Anne Mitchell of Drumaird, Fife.

Robert married second Miss Jane Morison of Aberdeen (no issue).

George Hamilton, WS. Married Miss Stevenson of Montgrenan and had two sons and three daughters.

Elizabeth Hamilton. Born 23rd June 1749. Living 1842.

George Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1711, twin. Died 28 March 1751. Married Anne Stevenson.

Anne Balfour. Born 1742. Died 1823. Married Thomas Wishart.

John Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1711, twin. Died 1711.

Alexander Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1713. Died 1737.

Elizabeth ("Betty") Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1714. Died 1812. Married 15 June 1755 Rev Wodrow, minister of Tarbolton, 2nd son of the renowned ecclesiastical historian.

John Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1715. Died October 1796. Publisher. Married Catherine Cant (born 1715 died 1796), daughter of Cant of Thurston. They had their portraits painted by Raeburn.

James Balfour. Died 1795. Married Anne Gertrude Haatz.

Louisa Balfour. Married James Miller.

Elphinstone Balfour. Married Margaret Bruce.

General William Balfour. Born 1756. Died 1811. Married Jane Ogilvie.

William Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1716. Died 1717.

Louisa Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1718. Died 1764. "The White Rose of Pilrig". Married 1743 Professor Dr Robert Whytt (born 1714), distinguished physician and physiologist. They had fourteen children, of whom three sons and three daughters survived him.

Jean Whytt. Born 1750. Died 20 November 1833. Married 1773 John Balfour (born 1740, died 17 February 1814).

Louisa Whytt. Married Admiral John Rouatt.

Martha ("Patsy") Whytt. Born 1758. Died 1835. Married 1783 Major J Wilson.

John Whytt, later Whytt-Melville. Born 1756. Died Bath Abbey 1813. Painted by Raeburn. Married Elizabeth M'Gilchrist. Painted by Martin.

Bridget ("Biddy") Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1718. Dsp 1764. Married 1743 Rev William Leechman. He was minister of Beith, Ayrshire and afterwards Dr and Professor of Divinity (later Principal) in Glasgow University.

Margaret Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 3 July 1720. Died 1785. Married Dr James Russell.

James Russell. Born 1754. Died 1836. Married Eleanor Oliver.

Mary Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 12 September 1721. Died 1722.

William Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 26 July 1723. Died 1731.

Importante Henry Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 13 August 1724. Died 1791. 2nd Batt'n of Royals. While in the British Army, he spent several years in North America. In October, 1761, he arrived in La Baye (today known as Green Bay, Wisconsin), where he took control of a former French post. Married in Edinburgh, 4 August 1765, Jane Elliot (born 1748, died 1815). There is a portrait of Jane Elliot by Raeburn in one of the galleries in Toronto. She was daughter of William Elliot of Wolfelee (b. 1688, d 1768) by Helen Elliot, daughter of Robert Elliot of Midlem Mill. William Elliot was son of Thomas Elliot in Oakwood (b 1659, d 1723) by Jean Inglis, daughter of Cornelius Inglis of Newton. Thomas was a descendant of the Elliots of Horsely Hill. Major Henry Balfour should not be confused with another, and unrelated, Major Henry ('Harry') Balfour who lived at about the same time. The unrelated Major Henry Balfour (b. 1741, d. between 1776-1791) was the older brother of Nisbet Balfour (1744-1823) see the report titled "General Nisbet Balfour of Dunbog, 1744-1823".

Louisa Balfour. Born Bonnington House, Pilrig 1767. Died West Kirk 1856. Married Robert Biggar.

James Balfour. Born 9 December 1770. Died Danzig 27 July 1849. Moved from Scotland to Gdansk, Prussia, where he married the mayor's daughter, Caroline Amelia von Gralath (born 1786).

Henry Balfour. Born Danzig 5 February 1805. Died 14 November 1873. Married Anne Fulljames.

James Aaron Balfour. Born Danzig 10 June 1808. Died 19 May 1862. Married first 5 July 1836 Amalie Matilda von Gralath (born 8 May 1818 died Spring 1850).

Arthur James Balfour. Born 27 June 1837. Died 13 February 1894. Married 27 July 1864 Emily Elizabeth Mason (born 5 December 1844 died 17 July 1930).

Louisa Amelia Balfour. Born 22 March 1839. Died 29 December 1909. Married William Ransom Ames (born 1830 died 21 March 1903).

William Arthur Balfour. Born 5 April 1845. Died 4 April 1935. Married Ella Elbina Hughes (born 16 February 1858 died 1 August 1901).

Jane Ernestine Balfour. Born 1817. Married Lt Charles Tarlo.

William Balfour.

Henry Balfour.

Helen Balfour.

Unnamed Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1726. Died 1726.

Robert Balfour. Born 1682. Died before 1703.

John Balfour. Bap 16 September 1684. Died after 1703.

Helen ("Nelly") Balfour. Married 17 August 1750 Rev Thomas Scott (born 1722 died 1806), minister of South Leith.

Walter Scott. Born 3 May 1753.

Martha Janet Scott. Born 29 September 1756.

John Scott. Born 14 May 1758.

Thomas Scott. Born 4 April 1764. Died 30 July 1825. Minister at Newton. Casado Mary Martin.

Elizabeth Scott. Born 1 June 1796.

Helen Scott. Born 22 December 1797.

Thomas Scott. Born 26 June 1799.

Ellen Martin Scott. Born 5 March 1801.

Walter Scott. Born 4 February 1803.

Mary Scott. Born 7 September 1805.

Cecilia Scott. Born 26 July 1807.

Matilda Henrietta Scott. Born 25 June 1809.

Margaret Louisa Scott. Born 15 April 1811.

Madeline Scott. Born 23 January 1816.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born 1685. Died before 1703.

Helen Balfour. Born 3 February 1688. Died c.1720. Married 31 December 1708 George Duncan WS (1683 - 1723) son of Alexander Duncan (Provost of Dundee) and Anna Drummond.

Alexander Duncan. Born Edinburgh 10 October 1709. Town clerk of Dundee. Married 26 August 1736 Isobel Crawford (bap c.1711), dau of Henry Crawford of Monorgan and Ann Hay.

George Duncan. Bap 1 August 1737.

Henry Duncan, RN. Bap 24 January 1739. Commissioner & Deputy Comptroller. Married 27 November 1751 Mary French.

Henry Duncan. Captain, RN. He had a grandson, Lt-Col A B R Myers.

Arthur Duncan.

Isabella Duncan. Married Captain Thomas Twysden, RN. They had a grandson, Captain J S Twysden.

Alexander Duncan. Bap 13 March 1740. Married 13 November 1768 Mary Simson.

Elizabeth Duncan. Bap 14 November 1741.

James Duncan. Bap 2 May 1743.

John Duncan. Bap 14 August 1744.

James Duncan. Bap 27 December 1745.

Elizabeth Duncan. Bap 25 February 1747.

Helen Duncan. Bap 11 January 1749. Married 7 October 1769 Alexander Stevenson.

Charles Duncan. Bap 29 January 1750.

William Duncan. Bap 22 January 1751.

Adam Duncan. Bap 9 May 1752.

Patrick Duncan. Bap 29 August 1753.

Isabella Duncan. Bap 17 December 1754. Went to live as a companion to Cecilia, nee Elphinstone, Mrs Balfour and lived at Pilrig.

Helen Duncan. Born Edinburgh 21 May 1713.

Isobel Duncan. Born Edinburgh 7 May 1715.

Anne Duncan. Born Edinburgh 19 March 1717.

Louvesia Duncan. Born Dundee 17 January 1719.

James Duncan. Born Dundee 6 February 1720.

Alexander Balfour. Born 15 June 1690. Died before 1703.

William Balfour. Born 11 September 1692. Died before 1703.

Bridget Balfour. Born 1694. Dsp 23 November 1764. Married first Rev Brown. Married second as his second wife 1737 Neil MacVicar (died 1747), minister of St Cuthbert's or the West Kirk.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born 1695. Died after 1703.

Henry Balfour. Born 15 November 1698. Died after 1703.

John Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1662.

Robert Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1665.

Christine Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1666.

Andrew Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1620.

John Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1621.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1623.

David married second c.1574 Euphame Abercrombie (dvu 1576).

Marion Balfour. Married her neighbour, Alexander of Denmylne.

Robert Balfour. Died before he who married Anne Ellis. Married Lillias Alexander (born 30 January 1719/20).

James Balfour. Born 3 March 1743/44. Died 1809. Married Betty Caw (born 1745 died 1788).

Robert Oliphant. Married Agnes Balfour (born 1806 died 1855) [see below].

Agnes Balfour. Born 1806. Died 1855. Married Robert Oliphant (see above).

George Keith Balfour. Born 12 November 1819. Died 5 August 1820.

George Edmond Balfour. Born 4 May 1821. Died 29 August 1869. Married Marianna Jowitt (born 7 July 1837 died 19 July 1865).

Georgiana Mary Balfour. Born 5 September 1860. Died 6 February 1900. Married Walter George Barttelot (born 11 April 1855 died 20 December 1900).

John Edmond Heugh Balfour. Born 22 January 1862? Died 5 September 1952. Married Evelyn Gerard (born 1891).

Kenneth Robert Balfour. Born 14 December 1863. Died 1936. Married Margaret Anne Rogerson (died 1901). Married second May Eleanor Broadwood (born 1875 died 1961).


In Bath Abbey there is a memorial to John Hay Balfour of Leys (died 28th February 1791) and his widow Katherine Hay.

Esta genealogía no pretende ser exhaustiva. We will however be adding to it.
A principal source has been "The Balfours of Pilrig" by Barbara Balfour-Melville (T & A Constable, Edinburgh, 1907). It is now possible to get a freshly printed version, or a digital version, of the book over the internet. See Quintin's Family History Centre. The printed book costs $31.90, and the CD-ROM costs $14.50.


External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 30) Embryology Embryology History - Francis Balfour. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Francis_Balfour

What Links Here? © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G


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Who was behind the Balfour Declaration?

This week, Palestinians around the world are marking 100 years since the Balfour Declaration was issued on November 2, 1917.

The Balfour Declaration was a public pledge by Britain, declaring its aim to establish "a national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.

The statement came in the form of a letter from Britain's then foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, addressed to Lionel Walter Rothschild, a figurehead of the British Jewish community.

But the declaration was by no means formulated and decided upon overnight - rather, it had been in the works for years, involved many people and was drafted numerous times before being sent out.

The pledge is generally viewed as one of the main catalysts of the ethnic cleansing of Palestine in 1948 and the creation of the Zionist state of Israel.

Below, Al Jazeera examines the key players involved in realising the Balfour Declaration.

Arthur Balfour

The author of the Declaration.

The English aristocrat was serving as foreign secretary in the British government when the Declaration was issued and is the author of it.

Lionel Walter Rothschild

Rothschild was the figurehead of the British Jewish community and is the man to whom the Declaration was addressed.

Chaim Weizmann

A Russian Zionist and later the first president of Israel, Weizmann’s contribution to the British war effort as a scientist made him well connected to the upper echelons of the British government.

He played a central role in lobbying the government to issue the Declaration.

David Lloyd George

The prime minister in the coalition government between 1916 and 1922, Lloyd George’s government issued the Balfour Declaration.

He created the War Cabinet to make major strategic decisions during WWI and ensured that the Zionist project was on the agenda.

Herbert Samuel

Said to be the first Jewish Cabinet minister in England in 1909, Samuel, an ardent Zionist, introduced the idea of a Jewish state to the British government as early as 1914.

He worked closely with Chaim Weizmann and advised him on how to further Zionist aims in government circles.

Mark Sykes

Serving in the British government’s War Cabinet, Sykes acted as a key channel between British Zionists and politicians.

Nahum Sokolow

A Polish writer and diplomat, Nahum Sokolow traveled widely to rally support from world powers to back the Declaration.

Most notably, he met with high profile French officials in May 1917 and managed to convince them that Palestine should come under British control.

Key photos from the era of the Balfour Declaration

Arthur Balfour

Arthur Balfour, who first served as prime minister of the United Kingdom, and more importantly, later as foreign secretary during the government of David Lloyd George, is the author of the declaration.

Balfour, an English aristocrat, is credited with convincing the War Cabinet to issue the statement and with asking Chaim Weizmann and Lord Rothschild to draft it.

His colonial mindset could best be demonstrated with the following statement, which he made in a 1919 memorandum:

“In Palestine … we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country. Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land.”

His niece, Blanche Dugdale, who worked in the London office of the Jewish Agency with Chaim Weizmann, indicated that Balfour was a Christian Zionist in her autobiography: “Balfour’s interest in the Jews and their history was lifelong, originating in the Old Testament training of his mother, and his Scottish upbringing.”

But others argue that Balfour was an anti-Semite and that his interests in the Zionist project were merely for British strategic gains.

Before he resigned as prime minister, Balfour pushed for the 1905 Aliens Act, believed to have been an attempt at curbing Eastern European Jewish immigration to Europe, though it did not explicitly state that.

Lionel Walter Rothschild

A descendant of the powerful Jewish Rothschild banking family, Walter Rothschild was a Zionist and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann.

Though he retired from parliament by 1910, he remained active as a figurehead of the British Jewish community and served as the president of the English Zionist Federation. He was the recipient of the Balfour Declaration.

In the summer of 1917, Arthur Balfour asked Rothschild and Weizmann to draft a statement that would be in line with Zionist goals.

The original draft sent by Rothschild to Balfour proposed that “Palestine should be reconstituted as the national home of the Jewish people”. But following objections within the cabinet, the wording was made vague.

His lobbying efforts alongside Weizmann and other Zionists, both within and outside of the British government, were central in pressuring the government to issue the declaration.

Chaim Weizmann

Birth: Russian Empire (Now Belarus), 1874

Chaim Weizmann, who later became the first president of Israel, was a Russian Zionist and chemist who was arguably the most influential figure in procuring the Balfour Declaration.

While Theodore Herzl was referred to as the “father of political Zionism”, Weizmann was viewed as the one who put the plan into action.

After receiving a doctorate in chemistry in Switzerland, he went to England and took up work as a scientist with the British government during the first world war (WWI).

His contributions, mainly developing a process to produce synthetic acetone for explosives, made him well connected to the upper echelons of the British government, including former Prime Minister David Lloyd George, then foreign secretary Arthur Balfour and diplomat Mark Sykes.

In his autobiography, Lloyd George reportedly wrote that the Balfour Declaration was offered to Weizmann, who became a British citizen, as a reward for his contribution to the war effort.

At Balfour’s request, Weizmann and Lord Rothschild drafted the Declaration in a manner that would suit Zionist interests.

Weizmann lobbied hard for more than two years to publicly commit Britain to building a state for the Jews in Palestine. He argued that a Jewish state was in the interest of England.

In a 1914 letter to the Manchester Guardian, now known as The Guardian newspaper, Weizmann wrote:

"Should Palestine fall within the British sphere of influence, and should Britain encourage a Jewish settlement there, as a British dependency, we could have in 20 to 30 years a million Jews out there - perhaps more they would develop the country, bring back civilization to it and form a very effective guard for the Suez Canal."

The colonial undertones in his views are evident. In his first visit to Palestine in 1907, he is quoted as describing the country as follows: “a dolorous country it was on the whole, one of the most neglected corners of the miserably neglected Turkish Empire … Neither the colonies nor the city settlements in any way resembled, as far as vigor, tone and progressive spirit are concerned, the colonies and settlements of our day.”

Weizmann is also credited with the famous quote in 1919 in which he said: “By a Jewish National Home I mean the creation of such conditions that as the country is developed we can pour in a considerable number of immigrants, and finally establish such a society in Palestine that Palestine shall be as Jewish as England is English, or America American."

David Lloyd George

The prime minister in the coalition government between 1916 and 1922, David Lloyd George’s government issued the Balfour Declaration.

He created the War Cabinet to make major strategic decisions and made sure that the Zionist project was on the agenda.

Lloyd George is quoted as saying: “I was taught far more history about the Jews than about the history of my own people.”

He was convinced that Palestine had to come under British rule and acted on this accord.

In his memoirs, Lloyd George listed a multitude of reasons as to why he supported Zionism, including a desire to attract Jewish financial resources, Christian Zionist beliefs, the Jewish lobby in Britain, and sympathy with Jews facing anti-semitism.

He reportedly wrote that he offered the Balfour Declaration to Chaim Weizmann as a reward for his contribution to the war effort, but some historians challenge that notion.

Prior to serving as prime minister, Lloyd George worked closely with Theodore Herzl, the “father of political Zionism,” on the Uganda scheme - a plan to resettle the Jews in Uganda under British auspices.

During the war, Lloyd George advised the British military commander Edmund Allenby to occupy Jerusalem before the holidays. When the British entered Jerusalem in December 1917, Lloyd George described it as “a Christmas present for the British people”.

Herbert Samuel

Herbert Samuel is said to be the first Jewish Cabinet minister in England in 1909.

In 1914, Samuel, an ardent Zionist of German origin, suggested that “perhaps there might be an opportunity for the fulfilment of the ancient aspiration of the Jewish people and the restoration there of a Jewish State,” in a discussion with the secretary of state for foreign affairs, Edward Grey.

A few weeks later, Samuel presented a memorandum titled The Future of Palestine, to the British Cabinet, proposing a Jewish commonwealth, but then Prime Minister HH Asquith did not find his proposal enticing.

“He thinks we might plant in this not very promising territory about three or four million European Jews” as a solution to anti-Semitism, Asquith wrote.

In a revised memorandum, Samuel said the British government should enable Jewish immigration “so that in the course of time the Jewish inhabitants, grown into a majority and settled in the land, may be conceded such degree of self government”, which he said “would win for England the gratitude of the Jews throughout the world”.

He also believed it was in the interest of Britain to install a friendly power near the strategic Suez Canal.

Samuel worked closely with Chaim Weizmann and advised him on how to further Zionist aims in government circles.

In 1918, his son, Edwin, was appointed as an officer of the Zionist Commission in Palestine, a group chaired by Weizmann and created to advise the British government on how to implement the Balfour Declaration.

Samuel was chosen by then Prime Minister David Lloyd George to be high commissioner, the highest source of authority, in Palestine, from 1920 to 1925. He was described as the “first Hebrew Governor of Jerusalem for over 2,000 years”.

Though he expressed on several occasions his fears that a Jewish state may harm the Palestinian Arab majority in the country, many criticised his actions in creating policies meant to allow Jews to flourish.

For example, he appointed Zionists to the top posts of his administration, while Palestinians were robbed of the right to create their own autonomous para-state structures.

Mark Sykes

Known for coauthoring, along with Francois Georges-Picot, the infamous Anglo-French deal to divvy up the Middle East after WWI, Mark Sykes’ involvement in the Balfour Declaration is often overlooked.

While his support for the Zionist project came late, Sykes served as a key channel between Chaim Weizmann and his fellow Zionist activists, and the British government.

He served as an assistant secretary in the War Cabinet to oversee Middle Eastern affairs and was convinced that a Jewish settlement in Palestine would ensure British imperial interests and minimise French influence there.

Sykes was highly involved in the negotiations that led to the Declaration.

He is credited with directing Nahum Sokolow, a Polish Zionist and diplomat, to convince the French to accept bringing Palestine under British control after the war and arranged for him to meet with the Papal authorities in Rome.

In his autobiography, Weizmann wrote that Sykes, at a meeting with a group of Zionists in 1917, said that the “idea of a Jewish Palestine had his full sympathy”.

On October 31, 1917, the Cabinet approved the final wording of the Declaration. Sykes was said to have emerged, calling “Dr Weizmann, it’s a boy!”

Nahum Sokolow

A Polish writer and diplomat, Nahum Sokolow is a lesser-known key player in the Balfour Declaration, though his behind-the-scenes work had a major impact on the issuing of the statement.

A close aide of Chaim Weizmann, he travelled widely to rally support for the Declaration. He was reported to have met with Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis in the United States and Pope Benedict XV in the Vatican.

He also secured support from the French and Italians, the Allied powers in WWI, for Zionist aspirations before the Declaration was issued.

Under the 1916 Sykes-Picot treaty to divide the Middle East after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the majority of the land of Palestine was meant to become an international zone. But in coordination with Mark Sykes, Sokolow, as a representative of the Zionists, fostered the view that the Jews preferred British over French protection in Palestine.

Most notably, he met with high profile French officials in May 1917 and managed to secure French support for the plan, as expressed in the Cambon Letter.

The letter, addressed from Jules Cambon, the secretary-general of the French foreign ministry, to Sokolow, expressed the French government’s sympathy towards “Jewish colonization in Palestine”.

“It would be a deed of justice and of reparation to assist, by the protection of the Allied Powers, in the renaissance of the Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago,” the letter, which was seen as a precursor to the Balfour Declaration, stated.

Sokolow later became the president of the World Zionist Organization for a short period of time.

Key photos from the era of the Balfour Declaration


Chaim Weizmann, the former president of the World Zionist Organization, and his wife, Vera, are pictured outside of St James's Palace in London, where a conference was being held to discuss the creation of an Israeli state out of British-controlled Palestine. [Getty Images]


British soldiers patrol the streets of Jerusalem during a visit by Arthur James Balfour, a British Conservative politician, on April 2, 1925. The city's Arab residents were on strike as a protest against the Balfour Declaration, which supported plans for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. [Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images]


Balfour, while serving as foreign secretary, authored the Balfour Declaration in 1917. Here, he speaks at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1927. [Artist Topical Press Agency/Historica Graphica Collection/Heritage Images/Getty Images]


Arab protesters travel to the Jordanian capital Amman for a demonstration against the Balfour Declaration in 1936. The banners read: ''Palestine for the Arabs'' and ''Our homeland is our faith and complete freedom is our life''. [Roger Viollet/Getty Images]


Balfour points out a feature of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to Governor Sir Ronald Storrs during a visit to Jerusalem on April 9, 1925. [Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images]


Balfour and former Prime Minister David Lloyd George are pictured in London before World War I. [Photo12/UIG/ Getty Images]


Former British Interior Minister Sir Herbert Samuel arrives in Jerusalem in July 1920 to take over as high commissioner of the British Mandate in Palestine. [Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone/ Getty Images]


Lionel Walter Rothschild, a figurehead of the British Jewish community to whom the Balfour Declaration was addressed, is pictured in July 1927. [Fox Photos/Getty Images]